Questions: Orofacial clefts (CLP) are among the most common congenital malformations of the orofacial system with a prevalence of approximately 1:500 live births, and are often associated with malocclusions and abnormalities in tooth formation, eruption, position and tooth number2. The nature and frequency of malposition are of great interest with regard to orthodontic treatment planning and rehabilitation of these patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was a retrospective analysis and three-dimensional evaluation of the nature and frequency of occlusal and den-tal malposition and their association with the cleft type.
Schlagwörter: Cleft lip and palate, oral clefts, tooth malpositions, digital analysis, 3D model
Methods: A total of n = 58 cleft patients, born in between 1982-2010, which had been treated in the Department of Orthodontics, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, were systematically evaluated. Thirty-one of them met the inclu-sion criteria: non-syndromic unilateral (UCLP) or bilateral (BCLP) orofacial cleft, sufficient documentation, mixed or permanent dentition, intact initial plaster cast, which were recorded by means of a 3D-scanner (OrthoxScan, Dentau-rum, Ispringen, Germany) and measured three-dimensionally (CleftDynamic, S.K.M. Informatik GmbH, Schwerin, Germany) to evaluate occlusal and dental malposition. Statistical evaluation was carried out by comparison of mean values using the software SPSS Statistics 27.0 (IBM Deutschland GmbH, Ehningen, Germany) (significance level p = 0.05).
Results: As the most common finding, an aberration of the inclination and angulation as well as a distal position of the upper central incisors (tooth 11 and 21) could be determined, whereat the extent of these anomalies was significantly correlated to the cleft side. Overjet and overbite of these teeth werealso significantly smaller on the cleft side; in addition, in the area of the first permanent molar a cross bite could be found, which was also significantly more frequently located on the cleft compared to the non-cleft side.
Conclusions: Abnormalities of the upper central incisors most frequently occur in cleft patients and are strongly correlated to the cleft side, but a cross bite in the region of the first permanent molar can also be frequently found compared to the non-cleft side. This should be taken into account concerning orthodontic treatment planning in these patients.