Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyse whether the deprogramming of awake bruxism (AB) with new technologies (Biofeedback-Electromyography and E-health or M-health) might have an effect on sleep bruxism (SB).
Schlagwörter: Bruxism, sleep bruxism, awake bruxism, E-health, M-health, smartphone, momentary ecological assessment, bruxapp, biofeedback, electromyography
Materials and Methods: Systematic review of the literature on the topic of bruxism, new technologies, biofeedback, and electromyogram (BF-EMG), with interventions on AB and its effect on SB with the following search terms: (((“BRUXISM”) OR ("SLEEP BRUXISM") OR ("AWAKE BRUXISM")) AND (((“EHEALTH”) OR ("MHEALTH") OR ("SMARTPHONE") OR ("ECOLOGICAL MOMENTARY ASSESSMENT") OR (“DESENCOSTE OS SEUS DENTES”) OR (“BRUXAPP”) OR ("BIOFEEDBACK") OR ("ELECTROMYOGRAPHY"))) An exhaustive search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the bibliographic databases PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, Web of Science, Ovid, and Google Scholar was performed from September 2020 to April 2022. ). The population of this SR were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that respected the research question, with adults with AB and/or SB subjected to tests for EMG, biofeedback or use of mobile applications for smartphones (apps). The exclusion criteria were animal studies bruxism studies in children and adolescents, and bruxism treatment techniques that included botulinum toxin, relaxation orthosis (without biofeedback) medications such as treatment, laser, music, physiotherapy, muscle stretching, music, cognitive therapy, and other therapies that do not respect the initial question of this review.
Results: We could only include 2 RCTs with BF-EMG intervention in AB and its effect on SB. RCTs show that there are studies of BF-EMG acting on AB and that BF-EMG may have an effect on SB. (1,2)
Although mobile apps for smartphones can be useful to determine the prevalence and deprogramming of AB, there are no RCTs with mobile apps to be able to confirm that AB deprogramming might be useful in the management of SB. (3,4)
Conclusions: According to the results of the systematic review, it seems possible to partially deprogram SB with BF-EM deprogramming of AB, but the scarcity of RCTs does not allow an unequivocally confirmation of this assumption.