Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and clinical usability of an identification model using ensemble deep learning for 130 dental implant types.
Schlagwörter: artificial intelligence, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, dental implants
Materials and Methods: A total of 28,112 panoramic radiographs were obtained from 30 domestic and foreign dental clinics. From these panoramic radiographs, 45,909 implant fixture images were extracted and labeled based on electronic medical records. Dental implants were classified into 130 types according to the manufacturer, the manufacturer’s implant system, and the diameter and length of the implant fixture. Regions of interest were manually cropped, and data augmentation was performed. According to the minimum number of images collected per implant type, the datasets were classified into three sets: an overall total of 130 and two subsets that consisted of 79 and 58 types. EfficientNet and Res2Next algorithms were used for image classification in deep learning. After testing the performance of the two models, the ensemble learning technique was applied to improve accuracy. The top-1 accuracy, top-5 accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 scores were calculated according to algorithms and datasets.
Results: For the 130 types, the top-1 accuracy, top-5 accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 scores were 75.27, 95.02, 78.84, 75.27, and 74.89, respectively. In all cases, the ensemble model performed better than EfficientNet and Res2Next. When using the ensemble model, the accuracy increased as the number of types decreased.
Conclusion: The ensemble deep learning model for the identification of 130 types of dental implants showed higher accuracy than the existing algorithms. To further improve the performance and clinical usability of the model, images with higher quality and fine-tuned algorithms optimized for implant identification are required. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2023;38:150–156. doi: 10.11607/jomi.9818