The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the longevity of teeth and implants during a long-term period in a cohort of periodontally compromised patients, treated and maintained in a private specialist periodontal practice, and to analyze the associated risk factors. Fifty-eight patients (30 men, 28 women) who had received active periodontal therapy (APT) and regular periodontal maintenance (PM) ≥ 10 years were included and evaluated. The following were evaluated: (1) statistically significant differences of clinical parameters assessed at six tooth or implant sites (plaque scores, bleeding score, periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing, and gingival recession) and radiographic parameters (mesial and distal bone crest loss) between patients with and without tooth/implant loss during PM; and (2) associations between the number of teeth and implants lost and potential risk factors. During PM, the overall average tooth loss was 0.07 teeth/patient/year (0.04 teeth/patient/year for periodontal reasons), while the overall average implant loss was 0.4 implants/patient/year. The overall implant failure was 10.08%, and the rate of implant failure due to biologic reasons was 9.8%. Incidence of implant failures in patients with vs without recurrent periodontal disease was 83.3% vs 16.7% (P < .05). Results showed that in chronic periodontitis patients, ATP followed by long-term PM is successful in keeping the majority of periodontally compromised teeth. In the same patients, a higher tendency for implant loss than tooth loss was found.