Vertical bone augmentation (VBA) procedures for dental implant placement are biologically and technically challenging. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies on VBA have failed to identify clinical procedures that provide superior results for treatment of the vertical ridge deficiencies. A decision tree was developed to guide clinicians on selecting treatment options based on reported vertical bone gains (< 5 mm, 5 to 8 mm, > 8 mm). The choice of a particular augmentation technique will also depend on other factors, including the size and morphology of the defect, location, and clinician or patient preferences. Surgeons should consider the advantages and disadvantages of each option for the clinical situation and select an approach with low complications, low cost, and the highest likelihood of success.