Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 2/2016
Seiten: 99-106, Sprache: Englisch
Aims: To test if patients with masticatory myofascial pain, local myalgia, centrally mediated myalgia, disc displacement, capsulitis/synovitis, or continuous neuropathic pain differed in self-reported satisfaction with life. The study also tested if satisfaction with life was similarly predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning across disorders.
Methods: Satisfaction with life, fatigue, affective distress, social support, and pain data were extracted from the medical records of 343 patients seeking treatment for chronic orofacial pain. Patients were grouped by primary diagnosis assigned following their initial appointment. Satisfaction with life was compared between disorders, with and without pain intensity entered as a covariate. Disorder-specific linear regression models using physical, emotional, and social predictors of satisfaction with life were computed.
Results: Patients with centrally mediated myalgia reported significantly lower satisfaction with life than did patients with any of the other five disorders. Inclusion of pain intensity as a covariate weakened but did not eliminate the effect. Satisfaction with life was predicted by measures of physical, emotional, and social functioning, but these associations were not consistent across disorders.
Conclusions: Results suggest that reduced satisfaction with life in patients with centrally mediated myalgia is not due only to pain intensity. There may be other factors that predispose people to both reduced satisfaction with life and centrally mediated myalgia. Furthermore, the results suggest that satisfaction with life is differentially influenced by physical, emotional, and social functioning in different orofacial pain disorders.
Schlagwörter: affective distress, fatigue, orofacial pain, pain intensity, satisfaction with life
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 1/2014
Seiten: 6-27, Sprache: Englisch
Aims: The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥ 0.95. Consequently, these empirical results supported the development of revised RDC/TMD Axis I diagnostic algorithms that were subsequently demonstrated to be valid for the most common pain-related TMD and for one temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorder. The original RDC/TMD Axis II instruments were shown to be both reliable and valid. Working from these findings and revisions, two international consensus workshops were convened, from which recommendations were obtained for the finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. Methods: Through a series of workshops and symposia, a panel of clinical and basic science pain experts modified the revised RDC/TMD Axis I algorithms by using comprehensive searches of published TMD diagnostic literature followed by review and consensus via a formal structured process. The panel's recommendations for further revision of the Axis I diagnostic algorithms were assessed for validity by using the Validation Project's data set, and for reliability by using newly collected data from the ongoing TMJ Impact Project-the follow-up study to the Validation Project. New Axis II instruments were identified through a comprehensive search of the literature providing valid instruments that, relative to the RDC/TMD, are shorter in length, are available in the public domain, and currently are being used in medical settings.
Results: The newly recommended Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) Axis I protocol includes both a valid screener for detecting any pain-related TMD as well as valid diagnostic criteria for differentiating the most common pain-related TMD (sensitivity ≥ 0.86, specificity ≥ 0.98) and for one intra-articular disorder (sensitivity of 0.80 and specificity of 0.97). Diagnostic criteria for other common intra-articular disorders lack adequate validity for clinical diagnoses but can be used for screening purposes. Inter-examiner reliability for the clinical assessment associated with the validated DC/TMD criteria for pain-related TMD is excellent (kappa ≥ 0.85). Finally, a comprehensive classification system that includes both the common and less common TMD is also presented. The Axis II protocol retains selected original RDC/TMD screening instruments augmented with new instruments to assess jaw function as well as behavioral and additional psychosocial factors. The Axis II protocol is divided into screening and comprehensive selfreport instrument sets. The screening instruments' 41 questions assess pain intensity, pain-related disability, psychological distress, jaw functional limitations, and parafunctional behaviors, and a pain drawing is used to assess locations of pain. The comprehensive instruments, composed of 81 questions, assess in further detail jaw functional limitations and psychological distress as well as additional constructs of anxiety and presence of comorbid pain conditions.
Conclusion: The recommended evidence-based new DC/TMD protocol is appropriate for use in both clinical and research settings. More comprehensive instruments augment short and simple screening instruments for Axis I and Axis II. These validated instruments allow for identification of patients with a range of simple to complex TMD presentations.
Schlagwörter: diagnostic criteria, diagnostic reliability, diagnostic validity, sensitivity, specificity, temporomandibular disorders
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 1/2014
Seiten: 38-45, Sprache: Englisch
Aims: To test the role of fatigue and its subtypes (general, physical, emotional, mental, and vigor) in mediating the relationship between psychological distress and pain interference. Methods: Retrospective, de-identified records were examined for 431 patients seeking treatment for persistent orofacial pain. Primary diagnoses of participants were muscle pain (29.8%), joint pain (26.0%), neuropathic pain (19.5%), and other (ie, fibromyalgia, centrally mediated myalgia, tendonitis, dental pain, cervical spine displacement, and no diagnosis; 24.7%). Mediation models were tested with distress as the independent variable, interference as the dependent variable, and fatigue or its subtypes as the mediators.
Results: After controlling for pain duration and average levels of pain, total fatigue mediated the relationship between distress and interference. Fatigue subtypes partially mediated the relationship between distress and interference, but mediation was strongest with the composite fatigue variable. The results, however, should be interpreted cautiously, as data were collected at a single time point and do not imply causality.
Conclusion: These results suggest that interventions targeted specifically at fatigue symptoms may be helpful for reducing interference and improving quality of life in patients with persistent orofacial pain.
Schlagwörter: fatigue, orofacial pain, pain interference, psychological distress
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 1/2013
Seiten: 32-41, Sprache: Englisch
Aims: To evaluate the impact of smoking on pain severity, psychosocial impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances in a large sample of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD).
Methods: A retrospective database review was performed on data from 3,251 patients with TMD, diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Pain severity ratings and psychometric data regarding impairment, sleep disturbance, depression, and anxiety were obtained. Differences between smokers and nonsmokers were evaluated by means of chi-square tests and independent samples t tests. Logistic regression models were used to study the impact of smoking, pain severity, and psychometric variables.
Results: Of the total population, 42.5% comprised RDC/TMD group I (muscle pain), 25.3% comprised RDC/TMD group III (joint pain), and 32.2% comprised a mixed RDC/TMD group consisting of patients with both a group I and a group III diagnosis. Of the entire population, 26.9% admitted they were smokers. Even after controlling for relevant covariates, smokers reported significantly higher pain severity, impairment, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances than nonsmokers.
Conclusion: Smokers with TMD reported higher pain severity than nonsmokers with TMD. These patients are at higher risk for factors that may adversely affect treatment outcomes.
Schlagwörter: anxiety, depression, nicotine, sleep disturbance, temporomandibular disorders
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 2/2011
Seiten: 117-124, Sprache: Englisch
Aim: To examine differences between idiopathic continuous orofacial neuropathic pain (ICONP) patients and chronic masticatory muscle pain (MMP) patients for psychosocial functioning and sleep quality.
Methods: Archival data were used to compare 81 ICONP patients to 81 age- and sex-matched chronic MMP patients on pain severity, life interference, life control, and affective distress measures from the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), a global severity index of psychological symptoms from the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C), and overall sleep quality from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). MANOVA, MANCOVA, and chi-square analysis were used to investigate differences between the two groups in the psychosocial and sleep variables.
Results: The ICONP group reported greater pain severity (P = .013) and more life interference (P = .032) than the MMP group, while the MMP group reported higher levels of global psychological symptoms (P = .005) than the ICONP group. After controlling for pain severity, however, the MMP group demonstrated greater affective distress (P = .014) than the ICONP group, and life interference was no longer significantly different between the groups. ICONP patients were more likely to report a traumatic life event (P = .007).
Conclusion: Although ICONP patients are likely to present more intense pain and report that their pain causes more interference in their lives, MMP patients are more likely to present with higher levels of overall psychological symptoms. The greater levels of pain severity reported by ICONP patients appear to be partially responsible for their higher levels of reported life interference.
Schlagwörter: masticatory muscle pain, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, psychosocial, sleep quality Full Text PDF File | Order Article
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 2/2007
Seiten: 107-119, Sprache: Englisch
Aim: To evaluate temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients for differences between masticatory muscle (MM) and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain patients in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and evaluate the level of psychological dysfunction and its relationship to PTSD symptoms in these patients.
Methods: This study included 445 patients. Psychological questionnaires included the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the PTSD Check List Civilian. The total sample of patients was divided into 2 major groups: the MM group (n = 242) and the TMJ group (n = 203). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups based on the presence of a stressor and severity of PTSD symptoms.
Results: Thirty-six patients (14.9%) in the MM group and 20 patients (9.9%) in the TMJ group presented with PTSD symptomatology (P = .112). Significant differences were found between the MM and the TMJ group in several psychometric domains, but when the presence of PTSD symptomatology was considered, significant differences were mostly maintained in the subgroups without PTSD. MM and TMJ pain patients in the "positive PTSD" subgroups scored higher on all SCL-90-R scales (P < .001) than patients in the other 2 subgroups and reached levels of distress indicative of psychological dysfunction. TMJ pain patients (58.3%; P = .008) in the positive-PTSD subgroups were more often classified as dysfunctional. Both positive-PTSD subgrounps of the MM and TMJ groups presented with more sleep disturbance (P < .005) than patients in the other 2 subgroups.
Conclusion: A somewhat elevated prevalence rate for PTSD symptomatology was found in the MM group compared to the TMJ group. Significant levels of psychological dysfunction appeared to be linked to TMD patients with PTSD symptoms.
Schlagwörter: prevalence, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological dysfunction, sleep disturbances, temporomandibular disorders