DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1542265, PubMed-ID: 34105923Seiten: 565-566, Sprache: Englisch
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1244461, PubMed-ID: 33880914Seiten: 568-574, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the success of deep learning-based convolutional neural networks (CNN) in the detection and differentiation of amalgam, composite resin, and metal-ceramic restorations from bitewing and periapical radiographs.
Method and materials: Five hundred and fifty bitewing and periapical radiographs were used. Eighty percent of the images were used for training, and 20% were left for testing. Twenty percent of the images allocated for training were then used for validation during learning. The image classification model was based on the application of CNN. The model used Resnet34 architecture, which is pre-trained on the ImageNet dataset. Average sensitivity, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for performance evaluation of the model.
Results: The model training loss was 0.13, and the validation loss was 0.63. The independent test group result was 0.67. Amalgam AUC was 0.95, composite AUC was 0.95, and metal-ceramic AUC was 1.00. The average AUC was 0.97. The false positive rate in the validation set was 18, the false negative rate was 18, the true positive rate was 60, and the true negative rate was 138. The true positive rate was 0.82 for amalgam, 0.75 for composite, and 0.73 for metal-ceramic.
Conclusion: Deep learning-based CNNs from periapical and bitewing radiographs appear to be a promising technique for the detection and differentiation of restorations.
Schlagwörter: artificial intelligence, dental restorations, digital radiology
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1098307, PubMed-ID: 33749221Seiten: 576-582, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: To describe the step-by-step procedure of a novel surgical technique consisting of a combination of the laterally closed tunnel (LCT) and the modified coronally advanced tunnel (MCAT) (ie, LCT/MCAT), designed to treat multiple mandibular adjacent gingival recessions (MAGR) and to present the clinical outcomes obtained in 11 consecutively treated patients.
Method and materials: Eleven systemically and periodontally healthy patients (7 females, mean ± SD 33.62 ± 14.6 years, min. 19 years max. 67 years) with a total of 40 adjacent mandibular RT1 (ie, Miller Class 1 and 2) gingival recessions with a minimum depth ≥ 3 mm, were consecutively treated with LCT/MCAT, in conjunction with an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and subepithelial palatal connective tissue graft (SCTG). Treatment outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 12 months postoperatively. Prior to surgery and at 12 months postoperatively, recession depth (RD) and recession width (RW) were evaluated. The primary outcome variable was complete root coverage (CRC, ie 100% root coverage), the secondary outcome was mean root coverage (MRC).
Results: Postoperative pain and discomfort were low and the healing was uneventful in all cases without any complications. At 12 months, statistically significant (P < .05) root coverage (RC) was obtained in all patients. CRC was obtained in five patients with a total of 21 recessions, while MRC measured 92.9% (ie, 3.75 mm). In seven patients (ie, 63.6%), RC amounted to > 93% while the minimum RC per patient measured 83.76%.
Conclusion: The results of the present case series suggest that the LCT/MCAT is a valuable technique for the treatment of mandibular RT1 MAGR.
Schlagwörter: laterally closed tunnel, modified coronally advanced tunnel, multiple adjacent mandibular gingival recessions, recession coverage, subepithelial palatal connective tissue graft, surgical technique
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1244321, PubMed-ID: 33880907Seiten: 584-595, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The retrospective study was undertaken to assess the peri-implant tissue stability in premolar and molar sites clinically and radiographically for implants 7 years after loading.
Method and materials: 408 implants placed in 275 patients from 2012 to 2020 and following a regular recall protocol were assessed for Modified Plaque Index (MPI), Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI), pocket probing depth (PPD), and the peri-implant soft tissue dehiscence (PSTD) clinically and mesial bone loss (MBL) and distal bone loss (DBL) radiographically.
Results: Significant differences were found in MPI, SBI, and PPD amongst both men and women in the premolar and molar regions. The mean MBL and DBL were substantially greater in women than in men and marginally more in the maxilla than in the mandible. Maximum mean bone loss on either aspect of the premolar and molar implants was 2.80 ± 1.54 mm and 2.97 ± 0.96 mm for women. Implant success of 96.82% at 7 years was achieved and the patient satisfaction levels of 94.55% and 95.50% in the mandibular and maxillary arches, respectively, implied that patients were satisfied with the treatment.
Conclusion: Women exhibited greater marginal bone loss on the mesial and distal aspects than men, with premolar implant sites demonstrating greater propensity for marginal bone loss than molar implant sites.
Schlagwörter: implant success, implant survival, patient satisfaction, survival analysis
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1098303, PubMed-ID: 33749220Seiten: 596-605, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: Bleaching sensitivity (BS) is the most common adverse effect of tooth bleaching treatments. This study evaluated the effect of adding 1% sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) on BS and the whitening effectiveness of a bleaching gel.
Method and materials: Two maxillary quadrants from 26 patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups in a split-mouth design. In the control group the at-home bleaching gel containing 3% hydrogen peroxide, and in the experimental quadrant the same gel with 1% SHMP, were applied in individual trays for 6 hours per night for 2 weeks. The patients’ sensitivity to cold and touch as well as spontaneous sensitivity were recorded based on a visual analog scale (VAS). Changes in shade guide units (ΔSGU) and ΔE were measured using a spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and independent sample t test.
Results: Twenty-four patients completed the study. After 2 weeks, the sensitivity to cold and touch was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control (P = .015 and P = .039, respectively). The spontaneous sensitivity revealed no significant alteration between these two groups and during the bleaching period in each group (P > .050). Regarding both color measurements, the bleaching effectiveness in both groups was comparable, with no noticeable difference (P > .050).
Conclusion: The application of 1% SHMP was able to reduce the BS with no detrimental effect on the at-home bleaching effectiveness. (Quintessence Int 2021;52:596–605; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.b1098303)
Schlagwörter: bleaching sensitivity, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hexametaphosphate, tooth bleaching
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1044157, PubMed-ID: 33688711Seiten: 608-617, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To determine the reliability of a newly developed software application (Shadent) in natural tooth shade selection.
Method and materials: A smartphone device with the self-developed Shadent software (patent no. 201841046815, Intellectual Property of India) recorded tooth shades of the maxillary right central incisor and canine for 250 volunteers. A prospective, clinical, double-blind trial was conducted. The shade match obtained under the standardized condition from Shadent software was compared with the visual method and spectrophotometer. The digital recordings were captured by two master’s candidates, while the visual shade match was evaluated by four master’s candidates and one faculty member from the Department of Prosthodontics. Crosstab analysis assessed the relationship between the visual method of shade selection, a spectrophotometer, and the Shadent software. Cohen kappa was used to measure the agreement between the methods.
Results: A kappa coefficient of 0.59 was observed between the visual assessment and the Shadent software, with an agreement percentage of 64.6%. A kappa coefficient of 0.65 was observed between the spectrophotometer and the Shadent software with an agreement of 69.3%. The software also had a better Cohen kappa agreement with the maxillary central incisor than the maxillary canine.
Conclusions: Shadent’s reliability was comparable with the visual and spectrophotometric methods and offered repeatability with standardized light intensity.
Schlagwörter: digital imaging, natural tooth, Shadent, shade match, software application
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1098311, PubMed-ID: 33749222Seiten: 618-623, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: Some modifications of orthodontic appliances such as the rapid maxillary expansion (RME) device with a Hyrax screw or Herbst are fabricated using traditional investment casting (lost-wax casting). This is precise but very labor-intensive. New technologies enable us today to use direct selective laser sintering (SLS) to produce freeform metallic structures. These machines are very expensive and only available in specialized laboratories. The aim of this investigation was to combine fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing with wax-based filaments to produce orthodontic appliances via investment casting.
Method and materials: For demonstration purposes, a lingual arch, a palatal arch, and an RME appliance were digitally designed based on an intraoral scan. The *.stl files were sliced and printed with a dual-nozzle FFF printer. The object was printed with a wax-based filament especially suited for investment casting, and support structures were printed with water-soluble polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) filament. The printed objects were cast in metal and finished.
Results: All appliances were successfully cast and polished. They were provisionally placed intraorally. The fit was clinically very good and comparable to traditionally crafted appliances. The printing and handling of the parts made of these special filaments is challenging.
Conclusion: With this experiment, the successful production of investment casting using FFF printing was shown for the first time.
Schlagwörter: 3D printing, computer modeling, fused filament fabrication, investment casting, orthodontic appliance design
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1044167, PubMed-ID: 33688717Seiten: 624-634, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The aim was to investigate the efficacy of citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-based treatments on smear layer removal and blood clot formation and stabilization.
Method and materials: After scaling and root planing, 126 root samples were divided into seven groups treated with: deionized water; saline; citric acid solution; Ultradent Citric Acid gel; EDTA solution; EDTA-based PrefGel; or untreated. Each group was divided into three subgroups: I for the evaluation of smear layer removal and surface wettability, II and III for the evaluation of blood clot formation and stabilization in static or dynamic rinsing conditions.
Results: Conditioning agent treatments increased surface wettability with respect to untreated samples (Ultradent: 45 ± 1 degrees, P = 6.2 × 10-3; EDTA: 36 ± 5 degrees, P = 8.9 × 10-7; PrefGel: 47 ± 7 degrees, P = 3.2 × 10-2). Smear layer removal (30% to 60% with respect to untreated samples) was observed for all the conditioning agents. Clot was absent on untreated samples and samples treated with deionized water. Clot quality was significantly higher for samples treated with conditioning agents (P < .05) and similar between group II and III (P > .05). A statistically significant difference (P = .027) was observed for clot coverage of the saline group, comparing static and dynamic rinsing, confirming the positive effect of treatments on clot stabilization.
Conclusions: The use of conditioning agents improves smear layer removal and clot formation and stabilization with respect to scaling and root planing procedure only, which is, however, considered an essential procedure to promote wound healing in periodontal surgery.
Schlagwörter: blood clot, citric acid, EDTA, periodontal tissue regeneration, root conditioning, wettability
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1098315, PubMed-ID: 33749223Seiten: 636-644, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The goal of the study was to determine the effects of software updates on the trueness and precision of digital impressions obtained with a variety of intraoral scanner (IOS) systems.
Method and materials: Seven IOS systems were investigated. Each system was tested using two versions of software, with the second version being the latest at the time of conducting the study. Scans were performed on a custom mandibular typodont model with natural teeth that were either unrestored or restored with amalgam, composite, lithium disilicate, zirconia, and gold. Eight scans were obtained for each software version on any of the tested IOS systems. Experimental IOS scans were compared against an industry-standard master scan of the typodont obtained with an ATOS Capsule scanner proven to have a trueness of 3 µm and a precision of 2 µm. Isolation of each substrate material on the digital experimental and master scans was achieved using the Geomagic metrology software for subsequent analysis of the substrate influence on accuracy. A generalized linear mixed model was used to determine the influence of the software version on the trueness and precision of the impression scan.
Results: For some IOS systems, scans made with older software versions differ in accuracy compared with those obtained with the most recent software versions. Trueness was improved for most scanners following the software update, although the Element2 IOS performance deteriorated. Software updates had lesser effects on precision and showed variable trends among different systems. Software updates also influence different substrate materials scans’ accuracy, although the results show variability among IOS systems. When comparisons were done among IOS systems updated with the latest software version, best performers for complete arch trueness were the Emerald S, Trios 3, and Primescan systems.
Conclusion: Software updates have a statistically significant effect on the trueness and precision of different IOS systems. These updates can have both positive and negative effects on scan accuracy, although it appears that these variations are within the clinical acceptability levels.
Schlagwörter: CAD/CAM, digital dentistry, intraoral scanner, software, software update
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1244389, PubMed-ID: 33880910Seiten: 646-651, Sprache: Englisch
Systemic scleroderma is a relatively rare, autoimmune, chronic, and debilitating disease, and its etiology is unknown. The disease is characterized by vasomotor disturbances causing skin and mucosa hardening, hand stiffness, excess production of collagen fibers, and impairment of the internal organs associated with the immune system. Extreme mouth-opening limitation is one of the symptoms in the oral cavity, and compromises dental intervention. One of the fundamental steps when performing a dental procedure is dental arch impression. In the presented clinical case, limited mouth opening hindered the impression accuracy. The objective was to present an alternative impression technique for a patient affected by scleroderma, with limited mouth opening and the need for oral rehabilitation with a removable partial prosthesis in the maxillary arch. An individualized tray was developed with design characteristics that allowed access to the oral cavity and removal, after which it was possible to perform the oral impression, reproducing the areas of interest without causing injury to the oral tissues. The orientation plan was elaborated after obtaining the cast. The teeth were assembled, tested in the mouth, and sent to the laboratory for acrylization. The prosthesis was placed once ready. The alternative impression technique enabled oral rehabilitation of the patient despite the mouth-opening limitation, and provided an accurate impression and a good prosthetic result.
Schlagwörter: dental impression technique, microstomia, mouth rehabilitation, removable partial denture, systemic scleroderma