Seiten: 785-797, Sprache: Englisch
This study evaluated the effect of titanium endosseous dental implants coupled to dissimilar materials on the capacity of preosteoblasts in bone marrow culture to differentiate, to form alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies, and to mineralize. Ten UCLA abutments were cast in each of 4 alloys: Type III gold, ceramometal gold, commercially pure grade I titanium, and titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6AI-4V); 10 ceramic abutments and 30 sterile Brånemark System implants were also used. Five abutments of each material and 5 implants were incubated individually in rat bone marrow culture, as were 5 of each abutment attached to an implant; bone marrow cultures not containing test samples were used as controls. Following 17 days of culture, the solution potentials of individual abutments (except ceramic), the implant, and the implant-abutment couples were measured in the test medium. One dish of each group of 5 was then stained for bone nodule mineralization; the remainder were quantified by area for alkaline phosphatase staining. Statistical analysis of measured in vitro potentials showed that the uncoupled samples formed 2 groups, and coupled samples formed 3 groups. Analysis of variance for alkaline phosphatase-positive area values showed no significant differences between coupled or uncoupled groups and the control. Normal cell differentiation and morphology, as well as a lack of zones of inhibition, were observed. Bone nodule mineralization was evident in all groups. It was concluded that the presence of these commonly used implant abutment biomaterials coupled to titanium endosseous dental implants had no adverse effects on the in vitro capacity of preosteoblasts in marrow to differentiate and to form mineralized bone nodules, despite measured differences in solution potentials.
Schlagwörter: biocompatible materials, cell culture, ceramic, corrosion, dental alloys, dental implants, electrochemistry, gold alloys, intraoral electrogalvanism, titanium
Seiten: 798-810, Sprache: Englisch
The purpose of this study was to morphologically describe the tissues surrounding 20 early failed (prior to prosthesis placement) Brånemark System oral implants. The implants and their surrounding tissues were consecutively retrieved and analyzed with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Failures were chronologically divided into those occurring prior to, at, and after abutment connection. The clinical conditions varied from osteomyelitis to totally asymptomatic but mobile implants. Different histopathologic pictures were observed, ranging from a stratified, almost acellular, connective tissue layer, via a capsule with a great number of inflammatory cells, to a heterogeneous interface with areas of highly vascularized connective tissue and portions of poorly mineralized bone detached from the implant surface. The histopathologic variation may reflect different etiologies and/or time stages of the failure process. Epithelial downgrowth was occasionally observed for asymptomatic submerged implants. Epithelial cells were attached to the failed implant surface via hemidesmosomes. The histologic, clinical, and radiographic findings together indicated that 3 major etiologies might have been implicated in the failure processes: impaired healing ability of the host bone site, disruption of a weak bone-to-implant interface after abutment connection, and infection in situations with complicated surgery.
Schlagwörter: dental implant, early failures, morphology, titanium, ultrastructure
Seiten: 811-818, Sprache: Englisch
This 3-year follow-up study compares implant treatment in 39 1-stage sinus-inlay block-grafted patients (study group) with 37 patients treated without bone grafting (reference group), all of whom were edentulous in the maxilla and were treated over the same time period. The cumulative success rate (CSR) of implant stability after 3 years in the study group was 75.3% in grafted areas and 82.2% in non-grafted areas. The CSR after 3 years in the reference group was 93.1%. The mean marginal bone resorption after 3 years of loading was 1.4 mm in grafted areas and 1.6 mm in non-grafted areas in the study group and 1.1 mm in the reference group. Complications noted during the postoperative healing periods correlated significantly with implant failures later on (P < .05). Since prosthesis stability (CSR) after 3 years was 94.9% in the study group and 97.3% in the reference group, it can be concluded that 1-stage sinus-inlay block grafts can be regarded as a safe method with a predictable outcome for use on patients with severely atrophied edentulous maxillae, although increased failure rates are to be expected for implants placed in bone-grafted regions.
Schlagwörter: bone graft, dental implants, implant prosthesis success, marginal bone resorption, maxilla, sinus-inlay
Seiten: 819-823, Sprache: Englisch
Numerous problems have been reported following various therapies used to attach natural teeth to implants beneath a fixed prosthesis. This study documents the results of 843 consecutive patients treated with 1,206 natural tooth/implant-supported prostheses utilizing 3,096 screw-fixed attachments. After 3 to 14 years in function, only 9 intrusion problems were noted. All problems were associated with fractured or lost screws. This report demonstrates the efficacy of such a treatment approach when a natural tooth/implant-supported fixed prosthesis is contemplated.
Schlagwörter: implant-tooth support, intrusion, screw-fixed attachments
Seiten: 824-834, Sprache: Englisch
A clinical and histologic study was performed to evaluate the differences in the healing of submerged and nonsubmerged hydroxyapatite-coated 2-piece implants. Three foxhounds were used for this evaluation. Mandibular premolars 1, 2, 3, and 4 were extracted. Three months later, 2 submerged implants were placed on one side of the mandible, and 2 nonsubmerged implants were placed on the other side of the mandible. After 3 months of healing, the submerged implants were exposed, and a third implant was placed on each side of the mandible in a nonsubmerged procedure. Clinical parameters were recorded, the animals were sacrificed 6 months after placement of the first implants, and histologic and histometric analyses were performed. Results of the evaluation of the clinical parameters showed only minor differences among the different treatment groups. Regarding the percentage of bone-to-implant contact of the different treatment groups, the submerged implants showed a bone-to-implant contact of 63.4%, the nonsubmerged implants showed 70.3% contact, and the late nonsubmerged implants demonstrated a bone-to-implant contact of 58.7%. The average distance from the implant neck to the first bone-to-implant contact (fBIC) for submerged implants was 0.58 mm, for nonsubmerged implants it was 1.09 mm, and it was 1.13 mm for late nonsubmerged implants. The vertical distance between the gingival margin and the apical extent of the junctional epithelium (aJE) varied from 1.14 mm to 1.28 mm in the different groups. The distance from the aJE to fBIC was 1.00 mm for the submerged group, 1.08 mm for the nonsubmerged group, and 1.00 mm for the late nonsubmerged group. Generally, it can be concluded that the clinical and the histologic behavior of submerged or nonsubmerged 2-piece implants utilized in this experiment do not differ.
Schlagwörter: animal experiment, clinical evaluation, histologic evaluation, hydroxyapatite-coated implants, nonsubmerged (transmucosal) implants, osseointegration, 2-piece implants
Seiten: 835-840, Sprache: Englisch
Many materials are used for sinus augmentation procedures. Anorganic bovine bone (Bio-Oss) has been reported to be osteoconductive, and no inflammatory responses have been observed with the use of this biomaterial. One of the main questions pertaining to Bio-Oss concerns its biodegradation and substitution by host bone. Some investigators have observed rapid replacement by host bone, while other researchers observed slow resorptive activity or no resorption at all. The aim of the present study was to conduct a long-term histologic analysis of retrieved specimens in humans where Bio-Oss was used in sinus augmentation procedures. Specimens were retrieved from 20 patients after varying periods from 6 months to 4 years and were processed to obtain thin ground sections. Bio-Oss particles were surrounded for the most part by mature, compact bone. In some Haversian canals it was possible to observe small capillaries, mesenchymal cells, and osteoblasts in conjunction with new bone. No gaps were present at the interface between the Bio-Oss particles and newly formed bone. In specimens retrieved after 18 months and 4 years, it was also possible to observe the presence of osteoclasts in the process of resorbing the Bio-Oss particles and neighboring newly formed bone. Bio-Oss appears to be highly biocompatible and osteoconductive, is slowly resorbed in humans, and can be used with success as a bone substitute in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures.
Schlagwörter: anorganic bovine bone, biomaterials, sinus augmentation
Seiten: 841-848, Sprache: Englisch
The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone regeneration around nonsubmerged implants placed immediately in extraction sites in the canine mandible using a combination of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and collagen membranes. Ten beagle dogs were used in this study. After the second and third mandibular premolars were extracted, hollow-screw implants were placed in the distal extraction sockets. In each animal, one site received no treatment (control site), while other defects received randomly 1 of the following treatments: grafting with porous HA in the peri-implant region, collagen membrane adapted to the implant cervical collar covering the peri-implant defects, or a combination of the 2 treatments, ie, HA grafting and membrane placement. After 4 months of healing, block biopsies were obtained and prepared for histologic analysis using the cutting-grinding technique. The histometric evaluation took into account the number of integrated screw threads, the extent of bone-to-implant contact, and the density of peri-implant bone. At sites covered by membrane alone or by membrane and HA, the number of integrated threads was statistically higher than sites treated only with HA. The extent of bone-to-implant contact was significantly different between treatments. However, the use of bioabsorbable materials did not significantly enhance peri-implant bone regeneration in immediate implantation.
Schlagwörter: bioabsorbable material, bone regeneration, dental extraction, titanium dental implants
Seiten: 849-852, Sprache: Englisch
Bone condensing as a technique to prepare an implant site is demonstrated on a patient who was to undergo orthodontic treatment utilizing a palatal implant as an anchor. Based on the anatomic constraints of the palate and the desire to load the implant as axially as possible, adapted instrumentation for bone condensing is presented. Bone condensing for preparation of the implant site in soft maxillary bone avoids the risk of heat generation, and palatal implants can be placed precisely with primary stability.
Schlagwörter: bone condensing, orthodontic anchorage, osteotome technique, palatal implant
Seiten: 853-858, Sprache: Englisch
A retrospective clinical evaluation of patients consecutively treated from multiple centers was performed. The treatment of these patients utilized the bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation (BAOSFE) procedure with immediate implant fixation. The BAOSFE method employs a specific set of osteotome instruments to tent the sinus membrane with bone graft material placed through the osteotomy site. A total of 174 implants was placed in 101 patients. Implants were of both screw and cylinder shapes with machined, titanium plasma-sprayed, and hydroxyapatite surfaces from various manufacturers. The 9 participating clinicians used autografts, allografts, and xenografts alone or in various combinations, and the type of graft was selected by the individual clinicians. The choice of graft material did not appear to influence survival rates. Loading periods varied from 6 to 66 months. The survival rate was 96% or higher when pretreatment bone height was 5 mm or more and dropped to 85.7% when pretreatment bone height was 4 mm or less. The most important factor influencing implant survival with the BAOSFE was the preexisting bone height between the sinus floor and crest. This short-term retrospective investigation suggests that the BAOSFE can be a successful procedure with a wide variety of implant types and grafting procedures.
Schlagwörter: bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation, Caldwell-Luc surgery, osteotomes, retrospective clinical evaluation, sinus membrane
Seiten: 859-864, Sprache: Englisch
The present study compares the biologic behavior of BioGran and Calcitite as fillers for surgical cavities in the mandibles of 4 adult monkeys (Cebus apella). The surgical cavities were prepared through both mandibular cortices, with a diameter of 5 mm, in the angle region. Two cavities were prepared on the right side and 1 on the left and divided into 3 groups: R1 sites were filled with bioglass (BioGran), R2 sites were not filled, and L sites were filled with hydroxyapatite (Calcitite). After 180 days the animals were sacrificed and the specimens were removed for histologic processing. Results showed no bone formation in group R2 (empty cavities). BioGran-treated sites showed bone formation and total repair of the bone defect, and the bioglass particles were almost totally resorbed and substituted by bone. The few remaining crystals were in intimate contact with newly formed bone. Calcitite did not allow bone formation, and granules inside the cavities were involved by connective tissue. Based upon those results, the authors concluded that bioglass resulted in total obliteration of the surgical cavity with bone and hydroxyapatite was present in a large amount and involved by connective tissue, without bone formation.
Schlagwörter: bioglass, hydroxyapatite, new bone formation
Seiten: 865-868, Sprache: Englisch
The potential advantages and disadvantages of cement-retained implant crowns are reviewed, with a focus on complications related to residual excess cement. A series of 4 case reports illustrates the symptoms and treatment modalities associated with excess cement around implant crowns, and suggestions are offered for the prevention of such problems.
Schlagwörter: cement-retained implant crowns, complications, excess cement
Seiten: 869-878, Sprache: Englisch
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the clinical and histologic results of a sinus augmentation procedure performed using calcium sulfate as the grafting material. A group of 12 patients (15 sinuses) formed the pilot group. Based on the experience of the pilot group, the technique of calcium sulfate application was modified, and a second group of 45 patients (50 sinuses) was subsequently treated (test group). In the pilot group, a total of 30 implants (Biolock) was placed. In the test group, a total of 100 implants (Biolock and Biohorizons) was placed. The clinical data reported in the present study are related to the 1-year follow-up for both groups. Clinical evaluations, including assessment of implant mobility and probing pocket depth, were recorded on a monthly basis following implant uncovering until final prosthesis placement, and every 6 months thereafter. Radiographs were taken prior to sinus augmentation, monthly until 6 months postoperatively, 9 and 12 months after implantation, and at yearly intervals thereafter. One implant in the pilot group was not integrated at second-stage surgery, and 1 in the test group failed to maintain osseointegration after the abutment connection (at the 1-year evaluation). Based on defined criteria, the overall success rate for the 130 placed implants 1 year postimplantation was 98.5%. Clinical and radiographic evaluation revealed that the augmentation procedure resulted in new tissue formation within the sinuses. The technique used in the test group suggested a slowdown in material resorption and a reduction in graft shrinkage during healing. Bone biopsies were harvested for histologic evaluation. The application of a resorbable barrier membrane to the access window reduced the invagination of soft tissue at that level. The results of this study support the hypothesis that calcium sulfate may be a suitable material for sinus augmentation.
Schlagwörter: calcium sulfate, dental implant, histology, implantology, maxillary sinus augmentation, oral surgery
Seiten: 879-884, Sprache: Englisch
The advantages of the free vascularized fibular flap include its ability to be shaped with relative ease and to be grafted at the same time tumors are resected, with consequent reduction in operation time. In addition, few complications occur at donor sites. However, a large, systematic, and detailed investigation of clinicoanatomic problems of the fibula has not been performed. Therefore, in the present study, the fibula was examined morphologically and morphometrically, with special attention to regions important in the placement of dental implants. Eighty fibulae obtained from cadavers of 41 Japanese individuals aged 46 to 92 years (mean, 72.7 years) were fixed with 70% alcohol after infusion of about 6 liters of 10% formalin via the femoral artery. Morphometric examination showed the nutrient foramen was located posteriorly in 85.0% of sections, the maximal width of fibular cross sections was 13.1 mm, and the maximal cortical thickness of fibular cross sections was 4.1 mm.
Schlagwörter: cadaver clinicoanatomic study, dental implant, mandibular reconstruction, vascularized fibular flap
Seiten: 885-888, Sprache: Englisch
Three implant impression techniques, using 3 different splinting materials, were assessed for accuracy in a laboratory model that simulated clinical practice. For group A, an autopolymerizing acrylic resin was used to splint transfer copings. In group B, a dual-cure acrylic resin was used, and for group C, plaster, which was also the impression material, was used. A metal implant master cast with an implant master framework was made to accurately fit to the cast. This cast was the standard for all impressions. For each group, 15 impressions were made. Polyether impression material was used for groups A and B. The accuracy of the stone casts with the implant analogues was measured against the master framework, using strain gauges. A multiple analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed to test for significant differences among the 3 groups. Additional analyses of variance were carried out to locate the source of difference. The statistical analyses revealed that a significant difference existed between groups A and B and between groups B and C but not between groups A and C. Impression techniques using autopolymerizing acrylic resin or impression plaster as a splinting material were significantly more accurate than dual-cure acrylic resin. Plaster is the material of choice in completely edentulous patients, since it is much easier to manipulate, less time consuming, and less expensive.
Schlagwörter: abutment, autopolymerizing acrylic resin, dual-cure acrylic resin, implant, impression plaster, transfer copings
Seiten: 889-897, Sprache: Englisch
Histologic and histomorphometric results of bone growth around titanium alloy screw-type implants after Surgibone grafting in New Zealand white rabbits are presented. At 21 days, new bone was formed along the surface of the implant. At 84 days, newly formed bone replaced almost all of the trabecular bone of the graft and reached the shoulder level of the implant. There was a higher percentage of host bone area at 84 days than at any of the earlier experimental periods (P < .01). The average mineral apposition rates ranged from 1.82 to 2.35 µm/day in original bone and 2.55 to 2.80 µm/day in newly formed bone. The results suggest that Surgibone grafting in combination with dental implants can be used to increase the height of the recipient bone and therefore aid in the fixation of the implant in this animal model.
Schlagwörter: dental implant, fluorochromes, grafts, histomorphometry