Purpose: To compare radiographic predictors of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in dental extraction sites.
Keywords: bisphosphonates, denosumab, extraction socket, maxillofacial surgery, neoplasms, osteonecrosis, radiology, risk factors, systemic health, tooth extraction
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest relating to this study.
Materials and methods: Forty-one oncological patients undergoing intravenous or subcutaneous antiresorptive treatment, with a history of dental extraction visualised by panoramic imaging, were included in this retrospective study. Age-, sex- and extracted tooth–matched healthy patients who had previously undergone panoramic imaging were selected as controls (n = 57). A total of 288 extraction sites were independently evaluated by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists, who assessed eight distinct radiographic features. The radiographic features of extraction sites were noted to allow comparison between and within subjects regarding healing and osteonecrosis development. The association between radiographic findings, underlying dental disease and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw was also tested. The level of significance was set at 5%.
Results: Patients under antiresorptive treatment presented with widening of the periodontal ligament space, thickening of the lamina dura, sclerotic bone pattern, horizontal bone loss and periapical radiolucency with bone reaction (P ≤ 0.05). Development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw was associated with altered bone pattern, angular bone loss, furcation involvement and unsatisfactory endodontic treatment (P ≤ 0.05). An association between medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw and previous dental disease was also found, particularly for periapical lesions and endodontic-periodontal disease (P ≤ 0.05).
Conclusions: Radiographic predictors of further development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in extraction sites include heterogeneous bone pattern, angular bone loss and furcation involvement. Extraction sites with underlying bony changes related to endodontic and endodontic-periodontal disease are more prone to development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.