Keywords: bone mineral density, bone-to-implant contact, histomorphometric, osseodensification, ridge expansion
Purpose: To compare the amount of bone expansion, bone density change, and implant primary stability with an osseodensification technique to a conventional drilling protocol.
Materials and methods: Twenty-four bovine rib segments (20 × 25 × 4 mm) with a 1-mm outer layer of cortical bone were randomly divided into two groups: an osseodensification group and a conventional drilling group. Each bone sample received one 4.1 × 10-mm implant. The density of the peri-implant bone before and after osteotomy was measured. After implant placement, primary stability was assessed. A laser surface scanner was used before and after implant placement to compare the dimension of crestal bone width and volumetric expansion. Histomorphometric analysis was performed to compare the bone-to-implant contact percentage (BIC%) of the two groups.
Results: The peripheral and apical bone mineral density around the implants was significantly increased, and a statistically significantly higher peripheral BIC% was found in the osseodensification group. A significant increase in volume and bone width after implant placement was found in both groups. However, there were no significant differences in volume and bone width change at all three locations and in implant stability between the osseodensification and conventional drilling protocols.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the osseodensification protocol increased the bone mineral density and primary bone-to-implant contact. Also, this study suggests that implant placement by osseodensification or conventional drilling can increase ridge dimensions in narrow alveolar ridges.