Keywords: Axis II, DC/TMD, headache attributed to TMD, local myalgia, myofascial pain with referral
Aims: To analyze Axis I and II findings of patients diagnosed as having painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) with headache attributed to TMD (HAattrTMD) in order to assess whether HAattrTMD is associated with a specific Axis I and II profile suggestive of the central sensitization process.
Methods: This retrospective study included 220 patients with painful TMD divided into those with (n = 60) and those without (n = 160) HAattrTMD, and the patients were compared for Axis I and II results according to the Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD). A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 27.3% of the patients received a diagnosis of HAattrTMD. Myofascial pain with referral was significantly more common in the HAattrTMD group (P < .001), while local myalgia was significantly more common in the non-HAattrTMD group (P < .001). Characteristic pain intensity was significantly higher in the HAattrTMD group (P = .003), which also showed significantly higher levels of depression (P = .002), nonspecific physical symptoms (P = .004), graded chronic pain (P = .008), and pain catastrophizing (P = .013). Nonspecific physical symptoms were positively associated with HAattrTMD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.098, 95% CI = 1.006 to 1.200, P = .037). Local myalgia was negatively associated with HAattrTMD (OR = .295, 95% CI = 0.098 to 0.887, P = .030).
Conclusions: Painful TMD patients who report headache in the temple area and are diagnosed as having local myalgia rather than myofascial pain with referral probably do not have HAattrTMD. The diagnosis of HAattrTMD may point to a central sensitization process and possible current/future chronic TMD conditions.