Purpose: To provide an up to date, contemporary and concise evidence-based review of peri-implant diseases and conditions and discuss the current therapeutic approaches to managing these diseases.
Keywords: complications, dental implant, disease, maintenance, peri-implant mucositis, peri-implant tissues, peri-implantitis, periodontitis, review, surgical, therapy
Materials and methods: A literature review was conducted focusing on peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, as described according to the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions.
Results and conclusions: Peri-implant health is described when there are no clinical signs of inflammation, and when no further bone loss after physiological remodelling or increase in probing depth can be observed. Peri-implant mucositis is a reversible inflammatory lesion that affects the soft tissues surrounding a dental implant in the absence of radiographic bone loss, whereas peri-implantitis is an irreversible pathological condition affecting the hard and soft tissues around an osseointegrated dental implant. Clinical diagnosis of peri-implant disease is in some ways similar to that of periodontitis, but their prevalence varies significantly due to many confounding variables. Different treatment modalities have been proposed and tested in the literature; as yet, however, no standard treatment protocol has been proven superior or completely effective. In future research, well-designed studies are required to assess treatment responses and evaluate additional approaches that may lead to improved outcomes.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors do not have any financial interests, either direct or indirect, in the companies whose materials are mentioned in this study.