Purpose: Using the microshear bond strength (µSBS) test, this study investigated the bond strength between a hybrid ceramic and the extrinsic characterization layer after different ceramic surface treatments.
Keywords: bond strength, ceramic, hybrid ceramic
Materials and Methods: Hybrid ceramic blocks (Vita Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) were sectioned and randomly divided into 4 groups (N = 120) according to the surface treatment and aging (n = 15): P: polishing; E: acid etching with HF; A: aluminum oxide blasting; S: self-etching ceramic primer. The specimens were silanized, then cylinders of light-curing characterization material (Vita Enamic Stain, 1.6 mm diameter x 2 mm height) were fabricated, followed by glazing. The specimens were subsequently immersed in distilled water for 24 h and subjected to the µSBS test using a universal testing machine (load cell 0.5 mm/min, 50 kgf) or tested after thermocycling for 10,000 cycles in water (5ºC–55ºC). After treatment, the specimen surfaces were analyzed using SEM, with failure types defined as adhesive, predominantly adhesive, or cohesive. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05).
Results: The most frequent failure type was predominantly adhesive between ceramic and the characterization layer. There were statistically significant differences between the surface treatments (p < 0.05). Thermocycling did not lead to statistically signifcant different results (p > 0.05). For groups P and A, a sharp decrease in SBS was observed.
Conclusion: The absence of surface treatment drastically reduced the microshear bond strength between the ceramic and the characterization layer. Conditioning with 5% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s is the most suitable treatment for adhesion of the characterization layer to hybrid ceramic.