Purpose: The authors hypothesise that whole saliva soluble-urokinase-type plasminogen-activator receptor (suPAR) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels are higher in patients with poorly-controlled than well-controlled type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-diabetic controls. The aim was to assess the periodontal clinicoradiographic status and whole-salivary suPAR and TNF-α levels in type-2 diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.
Keywords: periodontitis, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, type-2 diabetes mellitus, unstimulated whole saliva
Materials and Methods: Patients with and without type-2 DM were included. In all patients, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Participants were divided into 4 groups. Group 1: patients with poorly controlled type-2 DM; group 2: patients with well-controlled type-2 DM; group 3: non-diabetic patients with periodontitis; group 4: non-diabetic patients without periodontitis. Clinicoradiographic periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], clinical attachment loss [AL], probing depth [PD] and mesial and distal marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. The whole saliva total protein concentration (TPC) and suPAR as well as TNF-α levels were measured. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.01.
Results: One hundred patients (25 patients per group) were included. Scores of PI (p < 0.01), GI (p < 0.01), clinical AL (p < 0.01), PD (p < 0.01), number of missing teeth and mesial (p < 0.01) and distal (p < 0.01) MBL were statistically significantly higher in group 1 than in groups 2–4. Scores of PI, GI, clinical AL, PD, mesial and distal MBL, and numbers of missing teeth were higher in group 3 (p < 0.01) than in groups 2 and 4. The whole saliva TPC, suPAR and TNF-α levels were statistically significantly higher among patients in group 1 (p < 0.01) than in groups 2–4.
Conclusion: Patients with poorly-controlled type-2 DM presented with poorer clinicoradiographic periodontal status and increased whole saliva levels of suPAR, TNF-α and TPC compared with patients with well-controlled type-2 DM and non-diabetic individuals.