Purpose: It is hypothesised the peri-implant soft-tissue inflammatory parameters (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], and probing depth [PD]) are poorer and crestal bone loss (CBL) higher around dental implants placed in electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)-users than controls (individuals that had never consumed any form of tobacco). The aim of this study was to assess the peri-implant clinicoradiographic parameters among non-smokers and individuals using ENDS at 8 years of follow-up.
Keywords: crestal bone loss, dental implant, electronic nicotine delivery systems, inflammation, probing depth, smoking
Materials and Methods: Self-reported non-smokers and individuals habitually using ENDS were included. A questionnaire was used to gather information about age in years, sex (female or male), daily frequency and duration of use of ENDS, family history of smoking and/or vaping, daily toothbrushing and flossing and most recent visit to a dentist or dental hygienist. These patients were evaluated for peri-implant CBL, PD, PI, BOP. The mesial and distal CBL was measured on digital bitewing radiographs that were taken using the long-cone paralleling technique. Group comparisons were statistically assessed and the level of significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results: One hundred twenty-seven individuals (92 males and 35 females) were included. Sixty-three individuals (46 males and 17 females) had used ENDS for 9.2 ± 0.8 years (group 1) and 64 (46 males and 18 females) did not use any nicotinic products (group 2). The mean ages of individuals in groups 1 and 2 were 34.2 ± 1.3 and 35.1 ± 0.5 years, respectively. In all patients, platform-switched dental implants with moderately rough surfaces were placed at bone level using an insertion torque of 30-–35 Ncm. In both groups, implants had a diameter of 4.1 mm and the lengths ranged between 11 and 14 mm. In groups 1 and 2, implants were in function for 8.8 ± 0.4 and 8.5 ± 0.2 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in mPI, mBoP, PD, and mesial and distal CBL around implants in groups 1 and 2 at 8 years of follow-up.
Conclusion: Dental implants can demonstrate stable clinicoradiographic status and can remain functionally stable in non-smokers and ENDS users, provided that strict home oral hygiene measures are adopted.