Keywords: biofilm, implantoplasty, peri-implantitis, surface roughness, systematic review
Purpose: A review was done to evaluate the effect of implantoplasty on surface roughness, biofilm formation, and biocompatibility of dental implants.
Materials and methods: Electronic searches were done in PubMed (OVID), Scopus, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library to identify all relevant articles published until April 2020. All publications evaluating changes in implant surfaces after implantoplasty were included. The primary outcome variable was roughness of the implant surface. Secondary outcome variables were biofilm elimination and regrowth, changes in surface elements, and cell viability.
Results: A total of 11 in vitro studies and two in vivo publications were included. Implantoplasty reduced surface roughness of the implant. The final outcome depended on the bur protocol, with tungsten carbide burs providing the smoothest surfaces, followed by silicone polishers. Implantoplasty did not affect cell viability, and roughness was inversely correlated to human gingival fibroblast growth. The technique also proved effective in removing biofilm and preventing its regrowth.
Conclusion: Implantoplasty reduces the surface roughness of dental implants, which in turn inhibits biofilm formation without affecting the biocompatibility of titanium implants. Since most of the included studies were done in an in vitro setting, further clinical trials are necessary to confirm these outcomes.