Keywords: histology, histomorphometric, oral and maxillofacial, osseodensification, periodontology, surgery, surgical procedure
Purpose: The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the effect of osteotomy preparation by conventional, subtractive, or osseodensification instrumentation on osteotomies, treated with or without endosteal implants, and healing capacity.
Materials and methods: Seven sheep were used, and 56 osteotomies were made in the left and right ilium of the sheep (n = 8/sheep [4 per side/time point (3 and 6 weeks)]). Two different instrumentation techniques were used: (1) conventional/regular drilling in a three-step series of a 2-mm pilot and 3.2-mm and 3.8-mm twist drills and (2) osseodensification drilling with a Densah Bur 2.0-mm pilot and 2.8-mm and 3.8-mm multi-fluted tapered burs. Drilling was performed at 1,100 rpm with saline irrigation.
Results: Qualitative histomorphometric evaluation of the osteotomies after 3 and 6 weeks did not indicate any healing impairment due to the instrumentation. In all samples, histologic examination suggested bone remodeling and growth (empty and treated with an implant), irrespective of preparation technique. Osteotomies prepared using the osseodensification instrumentation showed the existence of bone chips autografted into the trabecular spaces along the length of the osteotomy wall.
Conclusion: The osseodensification group yielded higher osseointegration rates, as distinguished through qualitative assessment, bone-to-implant contact, and bone-area-fraction occupancy, indicating an increased osteogenic potential in osteotomies prepared using the osseodensification technique.