Purpose: This in-situ-study investigated if rinsing the oral cavity with a calcium containing solution or a fluoride containing mouthwash immediately before an erosive attack leads to reduced enamel softening.
Keywords: calcium solution, dental erosion, erosive tooth wear, erosion protection, fluoride mouthwash
Materials and Methods: Bovine enamel samples (n = 240) with measured baseline surface microhardness (KHN) were assigned to five series (S1–5). Twelve participants carried out each series as follows: Four enamel samples of the associated test series were placed in an intraoral appliance and carried in each participants’ mouth. After 30 min, the participants either rinsed the oral cavity for 60 s with 30 ml of a solution prepared from a 1,000 mg calcium effervescent tablet dissolved in 100 ml water (S2), an 800 mg calcium containing mineral supplement powder (5 g) dissolved in 200 ml water (S3), a fluoride (500 ppm) mouthwash (S4), a fluoride (500 ppm) and stannous chloride (800 ppm) containing mouthwash (S5), or did not rinse with any test solution before the erosive attack (S1, negative control). The participants subsequently rinsed the oral cavity with 100 ml of a soft drink (Sprite Zero) for 60 s to simulate the erosive attack and immediately afterwards with water to stop the erosive process. As final step, surface microhardness was measured a second time and hardness loss (∆KHN) calculated. Differences of ∆KHN between the series were investigated by fitting a mixed effect model to the data set.
Results: The highest loss of microhardness and thus softening of enamel (mean of ∆KHN; lower/upper confidence level) was observed in the negative control (S1: 60.2; 67.6/52.8). While no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) compared to S1 could be found in S2 (50.0; 57.4/42.5) and S3 (54.6; 62.1/47.2), statistically significantly less softening of enamel (P < 0.001) was discovered in S5 (33.8; 41.2/26.4) and S4 (41.8.2; 49.3/34.4). S5 showed the overall lowest values for ∆KHN and thus best protection from enamel softening.
Conclusion: Rinsing with a fluoride mouthwash or a fluoride and stannous chloride containing mouthwash immediately before an erosive attack reduces the softening of enamel. None of the investigated calcium-containing solutions was able to reduce erosion induced softening of enamel.