Purpose: To characterize experimental adhesives containing natural antimicrobial agents (proanthocyanidins, apigenin, tt-farnesol) in the primer and to evaluate their anti-caries effect.
Keywords: adhesion, adhesive systems, apigenin, proanthocyanidins
Materials and Methods: Natural agents were incorporated in the primer of an experimental adhesive: 4.5% proanthocyanidins (PA), 1 mM apigenin (API), 1 mM apigenin + 5 mM tt-farnesol (API + FAR), and primer without antimicrobial agent (control). Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin and nanoleakage were measured immediately (n = 7) and after 1 year of storage (n = 7). Water sorption (WS), solubility (SO), and degree of conversion (DC%) of the adhesives were measured. The hardness loss of enamel (n = 6) and dentin (n = 6) at the restorative margin was evaluated after biofilm formation.
Results: DC%, nanoleakage, and immediate μTBS were similar for all groups. After 1 year, API + FAR showed higher nanoleakage and lower μTBS than the other groups, which were similar. WS and SO of API + FAR were lower than in the other groups. PA, API, and API + FAR presented less hardness loss than did the control group. At enamel, PA and API presented less hardness loss than the control and API + FAR groups at distances 50 µm and 100 µm; the hardness loss of enamel was similar for all groups 150 µm from the margin.
Conclusion: The addition of proanthocyanidins and apigenin to the adhesives decreased the hardness loss of dentin and enamel submitted to biofilm formation, without jeopardizing the physical properties of the adhesives. The combination of apigenin + tt-farnesol decreased the hardness loss of dentin but not of enamel, and decreased the μTBS after 1 year of storage.