Purpose: To evaluate the effect of heated and room-temperature hydrofluoric (HF) acid on surface roughness parameters (Ra and Rq) and microtensile bond strength (μTBS) on feldspathic ceramic and lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics.
Keywords: lithium disilicate, feldspathic ceramic, microtensile bond strength, heated hydrofluoric acid, surface roughness
Materials and Methods: Disk-shaped samples made from both ceramics were divided into groups according to surface treatment: feldspathic ceramic polished surface (FP), feldspathic ceramic + 60 s of 9% HF acid etching at room temperature (FC), feldspathic ceramic + 60 s of 9% HF acid etching heated to 70ºC (F70), lithium-disilicate polished surface only (LP), lithium disilicate + 20 s of 9% HF acid etching at room temperature (LC), and lithium disilicate + 20 s of 9% HF acid etching heated to 70ºC (L70). To evaluate Ra and Rq, non-overlapping readings were taken on the surface of each sample with a contact stylus profilometer. To measure microtensile bond strength (μTBS), samples of groups FC, F70, LC and L70 received their corresponding surface treatment, were silanized and then bonded using a dual-cure composite cement to resin composite disks. After 24 h, samples were sectioned to obtain specimens for μTBS. Representative samples from each group were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze the morphology of the etched surface. The data were analyzed for statistical significance using Welch’s ANOVA with the Games-Howell multiple-comparison post-hoc test.
Results: For both surface roughness parameters and HF acid etching at room temperature (FC and LC) showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in surface roughness when compared to polished surfaces (FP and LP). Furthermore, the use of heated HF acid etching significantly increased (p < 0.001) the surface roughness of the ceramic when compared to their counterpart sample of HF acid etching at room temperature. Group L70 obtained the highest μTBS of all groups (29.11 ± 8.26 MPa) and was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of the other experimental groups. There were no statistical differences (p > 0.05) between groups FC (19.94 ± 4.14), F70 (18.24 ± 5.29), and LC (17.87 ± 6.96).
Conclusion: The use of 9% HF acid etching heated to 70ºC resulted in significantly higher surface roughness and improved bond strength onto lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic compared to surface HF acid etching at room temperature.