Purpose: This randomised, examiner-blind, parallel study compared gingival bleeding and plaque control following 12 weeks’ twice-daily use of 67%, 62% or 0% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)-containing toothpastes.
Keywords: dental plaque, gingivitis, gingival bleeding, sodium bicarbonate
Materials and Methods: Adults with mild-to-moderate gingivitis, ≥ 20 gingival bleeding sites and bleeding after brushing were randomised to toothpastes containing 923 ppm sodium fluoride and either 67% NaHCO3, 62% NaHCO3 + 5% w/w silica, or 0% NaHCO3. Gingival bleeding was assessed with the Saxton and van der Ouderaa Bleeding Index (BI), plaque was assessed with the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (TPI).
Results: There were significantly fewer bleeding sites at Week 12 (primary endpoint) for 67% NaHCO3 (n = 110) and 62% NaHCO3 (n = 110) groups compared with the 0% NaHCO3 group (n = 110) (treatment differences: –3.1 [97.5% confidence interval (CI) –5.5, –0.7] P = 0.0068 and –2.4 [–4.8, 0.0] P = 0.0448, respectively). Statistically significant differences were also seen at Week 6 (P = 0.0361 for 67% NaHCO3, P = 0.0044 for 62% NaHCO3 compared to 0% NaHCO3). Compared with the 0% NaHCO3 group, BI was significantly lower in the 67% NaHCO3 group at Weeks 6 and 12 (P = 0.0477 and P = 0.0066, respectively). TPI was significantly lower in the 67% NaHCO3 and 62% NaHCO3 groups at Week 6 (P = 0.0336 and 0.0009, respectively) but not at Week 12. No statistically significant differences were found between the 67% NaHCO3 and 62% NaHCO3 toothpastes for any variable. No treatment-related adverse events were reported.
Conclusion: Twice-daily brushing over 12 weeks with toothpastes containing 67% NaHCO3 or 62% NaHCO3 significantly improved plaque control and reduced indices of bleeding in participants with mild-to-moderate gingivitis.