Purpose: To the assess whole salivary cotinine and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels among individuals involuntarily exposed to vapor from electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) (test group) and unexposed individuals (control group).
Keywords: cotinine, electronic nicotine delivery systems, interleukin 1 beta, unstimulated whole saliva, vaping
Materials and Methods: Demographic data and information related to ENDS vapor exposure were collected using a questionnaire. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, unstimulated whole-saliva flow rate (UWSFR) was calculated, and cotinine and IL-1β levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sample-size estimation and statistical analysis were performed. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between whole salivary cotinine and IL-1β levels. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results: Forty-eight individuals (24 and 24 in test and control groups, respectively) were included. Mean ages of individuals in the test and control groups were comparable. In the test group, the mean duration for which the individuals inhaled vapor from ENDS in each session was 22.3 ± 9.5 min and they were exposed to ENDS vapor 12.2 ± 2.4 times daily. There was no difference in the UWSFR between patients in the test (0.21 ± 0.02 ml/min) and control (0.22 ± 0.04 ml/min) groups. Whole salivary cotinine (p < 0.001) and IL-1β (p < 0.001) levels were significantly higher in the test than control group.
Conclusion: Young adults involuntarily exposed to vapor from ENDS express elevated whole salivary cotinine and IL-1β levels. Long-term exposure to ENDS vapor may potentially predispose vulnerable populations to oral and systemic inflammatory diseases.