Purpose: To investigate the effect of roughness and drying time of dentin as well as the number of coats of a self-adhesive composite-cement primer on the bond strength of self-adhesive composite cement.
Keywords: self-adhesive composite cement, self-adhesive composite-cement primer, smear layer, dentin drying time, microtensile bond strength, confocal laser scanning microscopy
Material and Methods: Sixty human teeth were prepared and assigned to 12 groups (n = 5), according to three experimental factors: 1) dentin surface roughness, rough or fine, as achieved by 250- and 600-grit silicon carbide papers, respectively; 2) dentin wetness based on air-drying time (5 or 10 s); and 3) the self-adhesive composite-cement primer applications (no-coat, 1-coat, and 2-coat). Composite resin blocks were made with hybrid composite resin (M1 GraceFil) and cemented with G-CEM ONE (both GC). Cement-dentin sticks (12) were prepared, and the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test was performed. Failure modes were observed with a stereomicroscope (40X), and bonding interfaces were evaluated with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc comparisons test (α = 0.05).
Results: Dentin roughness (250-grit > 600-grit, p = 0.000), drying time (5-s drying > 10-s drying, p = 0.000), and primer application (no-coat < 1-coat = 2-coat, p = 0.000) had significant effects on bond strength. These factors also showed significant interactions with each other (p = 0.003). The highest μTBS (31.8 ± 3.1 MPa) was observed in the 1-coat/fine roughness/10-s drying group and the lowest μTBS (13.4 ± 2.7 MPa) in the no-coat/coarse roughness/5-s drying group. CLSM showed higher penetration of cement in the primer-coated groups compared to that in the no-coat groups.
Conclusion: Bond strength between the self-adhesive composite cement and dentin was higher in the fine-roughness dentin group than in the coarse-roughness dentin group, and in the 5-s drying group compared to the 10-s drying group. Applying a primer to dentin improved bond strength of the self-adhesive composite cement.