Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of incorporating the semiconductor nanostructured silver vanadate decorated with silver nanoparticles (β-AgVO3) in a dual-cure resin cement on the degree of conversion (DC), microhardness, roughness, color, adhesion properties before and after artificial aging, and antimicrobial efficacy.
Keywords: mechanical properties, surface roughness, resin cements, silver vanadate, nanomaterials
Material and Methods: Three test groups were established: control (without β-AgVO3), with the incorporation of 2.5% and 5% (by weight) of β-AgVO3 in dual-cure resin cement (Allcem, FGM). The degree of conversion was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To evaluate roughness (n = 10), microhardness (n = 10), color (n = 10), and to perform agar disk diffusion (n = 8), disks of 6-mm diameter and 2-mm height were manufactured using the same concentrations. For the color and shear bond strength test (n = 6), orthodontic brackets (Morelli) were used, which were cemented to natural human enamel and evaluated before and after artificial aging via thermocycling at 5°C and 55°C for 1000 cycles. For color measurements, a portable spectrocolorimeter and the CIE-Lab method were used. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Tukey’s multiple comparisons with significance set at α = 0.05.
Results: Semiconductor incorporation did not influence the cements’s DC. The incorporation of 2.5% and 5% of β-AgVO3 resulted in a significant increase in Knoop microhardness and surface roughness. Significant changes were observed in the color of the specimens when the semiconductor was incorporated. Adhesion after aging remained within the clinically recommended values in all groups, and antimicrobial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis at both concentrations tested.
Conclusion: It is suggested to incorporate the semiconductor β-AgVO3 in the dual-cure resin cement at both concentrations. Moreover, the physical-mechanical properties remained satisfactory for the proposed application.