Purpose: To identify the most effective cleaning method for saliva-contaminated zirconia surface before adhesive cementation through a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Keywords: adhesion, bond strength, decontamination, dental materials, saliva contamination, surface cleaning, zirconia
Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched to select in vitro studies published through October 2021. Studies that did not perform aging methods, had a sample size less than 5 per group, or did not present a group with zirconia contaminated only with saliva were excluded. Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed. Statistical analysis comparing the cleaning methods was conducted, and the standardized mean difference was assessed using the R software program.
Results: Among 804 potentially eligible studies, 36 were selected for full-text reading, of which 13 were included in qualitative analysis, and 11 of these were subsequently included in the quantitative analysis. A meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in the bond strength between the cleaning methods. Sandblasting with Al2O3 showed a higher bond strength than cleaning solution (Ivoclean, Ivoclar Vivadent) (p < 0.01, I2 = 65%), and both methods promoted higher resin-bond strength to zirconia than water cleaning. In addition, there was no significant difference in the bond strength between alcohol (p = 0.35, I2 = 79%), phosphoric acid (p < 0.23, I2 = 90%), and water cleaning.
Conclusion: Sandblasting with Al2O3 seems to be the best method for zirconia surface cleaning before adhesive luting, promoting better resin-bond strength to zirconia.