Purpose: This systematic review aims to explore and compile the effect of adhesive luting on the mechanical properties of dental ceramics used as restorative materials.
Keywords: adhesion, cementation technique, dental ceramic, luting, mechanical property
Materials and Methods: The PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched on January 31st, 2021 to select laboratory studies written in English, without publishing-date restrictions, which compared the mechanical properties of commercially available dental ceramics as restorative materials luted using adhesive vs non-adhesive strategies. A total of 20 (out of 2039) studies were eligible and included in the analysis. Two authors independently selected the studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Mean differences (RevMan5.1, random effects model, α = 0.05) were obtained by comparing resistance values of adhesive and non-adhesive conditions (global analysis). Subgroup analyses were performed considering ceramic composition and aging.
Results: In the global analysis, adhesive luting induced higher mechanical resistance values compared to non-adhesive luting (p ≤ 0.01). The same effect was observed for glass and alumina ceramics (p ≤ 0.01), but not for zirconia polycrystals (p = 0.83). Adhesive luting was favorable in both the aged and non-aged subgroup analysis (p ≤ 0.01). High heterogeneity was found in all meta-analyses. All analyzed studies in the systematic review scored negatively for risk of bias in most of the factors considered.
Conclusions: Adhesive luting reinforces the mechanical properties of dental ceramics used as restorative materials, with the exception of zirconia polycrystals.