This study was designed to assess the effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain, Straumann) and alloplastic bone substitute (BoneCeramic, Straumann) on new bone formation in postextraction alveolar sockets. Twenty-one patients requiring anterior single-tooth extractions and subsequent implant placement were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Postextraction sockets were filled with either an alloplastic bone substitute (BoneCeramic [BC]), BC combined with Emdogain (EMD+BC), or left to heal spontaneously (SO). Histologic and histomorphometric analyses of the results were performed at 6 months postextraction. A significant increase in the percentage of new bone tissue area was found in EMD+BC compared to SO and BC groups. These findings demonstrate that compared with BC or SO, EMD+BC allowed for better formation of new bone in postextraction sockets after 6 months of healing.