Keywords: apixaban, bleeding, maxillary sinus floor augmentation, rivaroxaban
Purpose: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the occurrence of bleeding events related to maxillary sinus elevation with a lateral window in patients under direct oral anticogulant therapy.
Materials and methods: Seventyseven consecutive patients were scheduled for unilateral maxillary sinus floor elevation using a lateral window approach. Participants were divided into two groups: group A, formed by 37 patients who were under novel oral anticoagulation therapy (rivaroxaban/apixaban), and a control group, composed of 40 healthy subjects. Within group A, assumption of direct oral anticoagulants was not suspended nor modified before surgical procedures. Time (early/delayed) and site (intraoral/extraoral) of bleeding episodes were recorded in both groups of patients, in addition to bleeding severity (mild, moderate, or severe).
Results: Maxillary sinus floor elevation was performed in all patients. One dropout happened due to intraoperative membrane perforation. Overall bleeding episodes were comparable in both groups, chi-square (1) = .68, P = .41. Early intraoral bleeding events were more common in absolute terms, but also occurred with approximately the same frequency in both group A and the control group (Fisher exact tests: P = 1.00 and P = .375, respectively). No severe bleeding was observed in any of the attended patients.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this case-control study, maxillary sinus floor augmentation with a lateral window approach can be safely administered to patients who are under direct oral anticoagulation therapy when specific recommendations are instituted.