Purpose: Titanium bases are used frequently in daily practice for bonding to CAD/CAM abutments or crowns. Due to intimate contact between the adhesive gap of the titanium-base abutment and the peri-implant bone, the physical and chemical characteristics of the bonding material, or the gap itself, may affect peri-implant inflammatory reactions. The present study therefore aimed to examine the long-term effects of individualised abutments bonded to titanium bases on peri-implant health.
Keywords: abutment, dental implant, peri-implant bone loss, titanium-base abutment
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest relating to this study.
Materials and methods: A total of 24 patients, each with one test and one control abutment, participated in the present prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial. The test abutments were CAD/CAM titanium abutments bonded to titanium bases. As the control abutments were individualised, one-piece CAD/CAM titanium abutments were used. Clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed at abutment insertion and then on a yearly basis over the following 5 years.
Results: No significant differences in marginal bone level were observed between the titanium-base and one-piece abutments at any of the follow-up time points; however, when intragroup marginal bone levels were compared to the baseline values, significant differences were found at several follow-up time points. Intergroup differences were only found to be significant for pocket depth at the 4- (P = 0.006) and 5-year follow-ups (P = 0.024), favouring titanium-base abutments.
Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it appears that the peri-implant tissues of this specific patient cohort responded to titanium-base abutments in a rather similar manner to one-piece abutments over a 5-year period; however, no definitive conclusions can be drawn due to the low power of the present study.