Purpose: The authors hypothesize that ginger (Zingiber officinale) tablets and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in reducing postoperative self-rated pain and periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], and probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL] and marginal bone loss) following non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in patients with periodontitis. The aim was to compare the postoperative analgesic and anti-inflammatory effectiveness of ginger tablets and NSAIDs as adjuncts to nonsurgical periodontal therapy for the management of periodontitis.
Keywords: inflammation, interleukin 1-beta, periodontal disease, probing depth, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor
Materials and Methods: Patients with periodontitis were included. All patients underwent NSPT. In groups 1 and 2, patients received postoperative ginger (400 mg) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (400 mg), respectively. Demographic data were collected, and full-mouth periodontal parameters (PI, GI, PD and CAL) were evaluated at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days. Self-rated pain scores were assessed at baseline, and at 24 h, 3 and 7 days of follow-up. In both groups, self-rated pain was assessed pre- and postoperatively using the numeric rating scale (NRS). Power analysis was performed on data from a pilot investigation and group comparisons were done. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.01.
Results: Baseline mean NRS scores in groups 1 and 2 were 4.19 ± 0.12 and 4.13 ± 0.08, respectively. All participants had stage II/grade B periodontitis. At baseline, self-rated pain scores were significantly higher among patients in groups 1 and 2 at 24 h (p < 0.01) and 3 days (p < 0.01) of follow-up. In groups 1 (p < 0.01) and 2 (p < 0.01), self-rated pain scores were significantly higher at 24 h compared with 3 days of follow-up. In both groups, there was a significant reduction in PI (p < 0.01), GI (p < 0.01) and PD (p < 0.01) at 7, 14 and 21 days of follow-up compared with baseline.
Conclusion: Ginger and traditional NSAIDs are effective in reducing postoperative pain and inflammation following NSPT in patients with moderate periodontitis.