Purpose: To investigate the influence of primers on polymerization kinetics of resin-based luting and its effect on the microhardness and bond strength to zirconia.
Keywords: adhesion, ceramics, indirect restoration, primer, composite cement, surface treatments, zirconia
Materials and Methods: Panavia V5 (PV; Kuraray Noritake) with Tooth Primer (TPprimer; Kuraray Noritake) or Clearfil Ceramic Primer (CPprimer; Kuraray Noritake), and RelyX Ultimate (RU; 3M Oral Care) with Scotchbond Universal (SUadhesive; 3M Oral Care) were evaluated. Polymerization kinetics of luting materials with or without primers (TPprimer or SUadhesive) were evaluated using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in self- and dual-curing modes (n = 5). Microhardness of luting materials was evaluated after 1, 12, and 24 h (n = 5). Shear bond strengths to zirconia ceramics (Katana Zirconia, Kuraray Noritake; and Lava Esthetic, 3M Oral Care) after 24 h and 1 year (n = 8) were assessed to determine the effect of the following surface treatments: no treatment, non-thermal atmospheric plasma, primer (CPprimer or SUadhesive), and the combination of plasma + primers. Statistical analyses were performed at a 5% significance level.
Results: PV achieved a significantly higher degree of conversion (DC) when TPprimer was used, while there was no increase in conversion for RU combined with SUadhesive. Light activation significantly improved polymerization, which also produced greater microhardness. CPprimer and SUadhesive significantly improved immediate bond strength to zirconia ceramics. However, after 1 year, only SUadhesive with RU was able to maintain the bond strength. Plasma surface treatment did not improve bonding to zirconia.
Conclusion: The use of primers improved the DC for PV only. Light curing produced higher conversion and microhardness for both resin-based luting materials. Bond strength to zirconia was improved when primers were used. However, only RU demonstrated reliable long-term adhesion to zirconia.