Purpose: To comparatively evaluate the elution of residual monomers (bis-GMA, bis-EMA, TEG-DMA, and HEMA) from two self-adhesive flowable resin composites, a giomer, and a nano-flowable resin composite over five different time intervals, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Keywords: self-adhesive resin composite, HPLC, monomer elution, liquid chromatography, giomers, nanohybrid.
Materials and Methods: Four flowable resin composites were investigated (Vertise Flow, Constic, Beautifil Flow Plus F03, and Filtek Z350 XT). Immediately after polymerization, each sample was immersed in 75% ethanol/water solution and stored in amber-colored bottles at room temperature. HPLC analysis was performed at predefined time intervals: 1 h, 24 h, 4 days, 8 days and 16 days. The extraction solution was changed after each analysis. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc test at p < 0.05.
Results: The highest mean concentration of residual monomers was eluted from Beautifil, followed by Filtek, and both were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the mean concentration of eluates from self-adhesive resin composites (Vertise Flow and Constic). Vertise Flow released significantly higher concentrations of HEMA than all the other tested materials. At 1 h post-immersion, 52.2% of monomers were eluted, and continued to elute at a reduced rate throughout the study duration. TEG-DMA was the fastest monomer to leach out, while bis-GMA exhibited significantly higher total mean concentration. The elution rate was significantly dependent on the molecular weight of the eluted monomers.
Conclusion: No specific elution behavior can be attributed to self-adhesive RBCs. Elution of residual monomers is dependent on each material’s composition, resin matrix characteristics, and the monomer’s molecular weight.