Purpose: Current discoveries imply a connection between periodontitis and metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of periodontitis and MAFLD in obese patients with BMI >40, employing the most reliable diagnostic methods, namely liver biopsy, and detailed periodontal examination.
Keywords: gingivitis, liver biopsy, metabolic associated fatty liver disease, periodontitis, risk factor
Materials and Methods: Liver biopsy and periodontal examination were performed in 30 obese patients with BMI BMI >40 undergoing bariatric surgery. Kleiner’s classification was used to determine non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAS) activity score, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis. The periodontal condition was classified following the recent AAP/EFP classification. Patients were divided into periodontitis (PG) and non-periodontitis groups (NPG). Data on systemic health parameters were collected from patients’ medical records. Descriptive statistics and simple statistical tests were used to determine the differences between the two groups.
Results: The prevalence of NASH in the sample was 43% (13/30), borderline NASH 37% (11/30), while fibrosis stage 1 was most common (72%, [22/30]). Periodontitis prevalence was 67% (20/30), while all non-periodontitis patients (33%; 10/30) exhibited gingivitis. PG and NPG did not differ in NAS or NASH prevalence (p > 0.05). However, the periodontitis group showed higher C-reactive protein levels, while NPG showed higher gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The study results suggest the considerable prevalence of MAFLD, periodontitis and gingivitis in obese patients with BMI >40 undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients with periodontitis had higher CRP levels, while those with gingivitis presented higher gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels.