Purpose: To present updated information on odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) classification, etiology, genetic and molecular alterations, epidemiology, clinical presentation, radiographic characteristics, histological and immune histochemical features, differential diagnosis, treatment, and controversies, as well as a literature review of case frequencies in different countries.
Keywords: keratocysts, odontogenic cyst, review literature
Materials and Methods: Studies were selected using the key words ‘odontogenic keratocyst,’ ‘odontogenic cysts,’ ‘odontogenic keratocyst and clinical study’. Full-text papers were reviewed on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The literature search aimed to find articles that would show the frequency of OKC, dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst, and other cysts.
Results: OKC presents local aggression and high recurrence; therefore, a better understanding of its clinical characteristics and the genetic and molecular factors involved in this peculiar and controversial lesion is required. It is always essential to discuss treatment alternatives. Although OKC is an entity with a high recurrence, aggressive treatment is not advisable in all cases because factors such as commitment to anatomical structures and possible complications should be considered. However, periodic radiographic controls are advised.
Conclusion: To reduce the high number of present cases worldwide, it is important to improve knowledge on this pathology so that accurate diagnoses can be achieved and appropriate treatment can be provided. OKC presents local aggression and high recurrence; therefore, a better understanding is needed of the clinical characteristics and genetic and molecular factors involved in OKC. Furthermore, it is always essential to discuss treatment alternatives.