Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of prenatal vitamin D levels on oral health in offspring.
Keywords: dental caries, developmental defects of enamel, pregnancy, vitamin D
Materials and Methods: The search was carried out in three databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), ResearchGate and Wiley Online Library. The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials and cohort studies published between June 16, 2017 and June 16, 2022, laboratory assessment of prenatal vitamin D status and evaluation of primary or mixed dentition for observation of dental caries and developmental defects of enamel. The risk of bias for randomised controlled trials was analysed according to the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess risk of bias for cohort studies.
Results: A total of 177 studies were identified, 11 were included in the data synthesis. Eight out of 11 studies were considered as high quality and the other 3 studies had moderate risk of bias. The synthesis of data revealed that the impact of prenatal vitamin D status on oral health in children is quite controversial and subsequent studies are necessary to examine whether vitamin D levels affect the risk of developing dental caries and enamel defects.
Conclusion: The effect of prenatal vitamin D on oral health in offspring is not entirely clear. Since disturbances in dental hard tissues have a polyetiological origin, health specialists need to notify mothers about other possible risk factors and emphasise the importance of eating habits and individual oral hygiene in early childhood.