Purpose: This study compared a 2%-CHX dentin pre-treatment with three CHX adhesives (experimentally admixed 0.1% CHX in primer or bonding agent, or industrially added 0.2% CHX in universal adhesive) by evaluating dentin bond strengths after biological loading in a fully automated artificial mouth model.
Keywords: biofilm, biological loading, bond durability, cariology, chlorhexidine gluconate, dentin bonding, microtensile bond strength
Materials and Methods: The occlusal dentin of 50 freshly extracted human third molars was exposed, and the teeth were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the adhesive protocol (n = 10): 1. control, Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M Oral Care; CTRL); 2. 2% CHX dentin pre-treatment (DENT); 3. 0.1% CHX experimentally admixed into the primer (PRIM); 4. 0.1% CHX experimentally admixed into the bonding agent (BOND); 5. Peak Universal Bond containing 0.2% CHX (Ultradent; PEAK). The teeth were restored with composite resin. Microtensile bond strength testing (bonding area 0.46 mm2 ± 0.04 mm2, crosshead speed 1 mm/min) was performed after 24-h storage in distilled water (baseline) or after 2-day biological loading with S. mutans (demineralization 1 h / remineralization 5 h). The mode of fracture was recorded and exemplary sticks were evaluated under SEM.
Results: CTRL exhibited significantly higher μTBS at baseline in comparison to PRIM (p = 0.000), BOND (p = 0.002), and PEAK (p = 0.000). After undergoing the caries model, CTRL demonstrated significantly lower μTBS compared to DENT (p = 0.000), PRIM (p = 0.008), and PEAK (p = 0.000). The same behavior was observed for BOND vs DENT (p = 0.000), PRIM (p = 0.003), and PEAK (p = 0.001). After biological loading, DENT (p = 0.041), PRIM (p = 0.000), and BOND (p = 0.000) exhibited significantly fewer adhesive fractures than CTRL.
Conclusions: CHX addition to the primer protects dentin bond strength from declining after biological loading. Thus, it may offer some clinical advantage in terms of secondary caries inhibition around composite restorations. However, since loss of adhesion at baseline was less when 2% CHX was used as a dentin pre-treatment, it can be suggested as a safer option. so that bonding is not undermined by potential chemical interactions from CHX with the adhesives.