Summary: Periodontal disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are inflammatory diseases affecting the adult population of the world. PD is mainly caused by infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and by the synergistic action of various microorganisms. These microorganisms penetrate into the subgingival tissue and cause bacteremia, leading to disruption of the homeostasis of the internal environment of the body. Virulence factors known as gingipains, which are cysteine proteases and other toxins, including fimbria and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), are strongly associated with periodontitis and other systemic inflammation. PD has a known polymicrobial aetiology, and patients who eventually develop sporadic AD tend to have recurrent infections before a clinical diagnosis of dementia. AD, the most common neurodegenerative disease, is characterised by poor memory and specific hallmark proteins. An increasing number of studies have shown that periodontal pathogens are increasingly associated with this form of dementia. Many articles have shown that P. gingivalis infections directly increase the risk of PD and may indirectly lead to the development of AD. However, these links and probable pathogenesis remain to be explored. The aim of this review was to explore whether P. gingivalis periodontal infection is associated with AD and to provide possible mechanisms of association.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegenerative disease, periodontal disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis)