Purpose: To synthesise and characterise nanosilver sodium fluoride (NSSF) and assess the effect of applying this formulation in vitro on artificially demineralised root dentin lesions, compared with the application of silver diamine fluoride (SDF), sodium fluoride (NAF) or no treatment, in terms of mechanical, chemical and ultrastructural properties.
Keywords: caries, demineralisation, fluoride, nanoparticles, root dentin, silver
Materials and Methods: NSSF was prepared using 0.5 wt% chitosan solution. On 40 extracted human molars, the buccal aspect of the cervical thirds of roots were prepared and divided into 4 groups of 10 each: control (no treatment), NSSF, SDF and NaF (n = 10). The specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface and cross-sectional microhardness and nano-indentation tests were performed to determine the mineral and carbonate content, microhardness, and nanohardness, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the differences between the different treatment groups for the set parameters using parametric and non-parametric tests. Tukey’s and Dunnet’s T3 post-hoc tests were further used for multiple comparisons between groups (α = 0.05).
Results: The control group (no treatment) was found to have statistically significantly lower mean scores for surface and cross-sectional microhardness compared with all other test groups (NaF, NSSF and SDF) (p < 0.05). Spearman’s rank correlation test showed statistically insignificant differences between the mineral-to-matrix ratio (M:M) and carbonate content of all groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Treatment of root lesions with NSSF yielded comparable results to SDF and NaF under in-vitro conditions.