Aims: To develop the Malay DC/TMD through a formal cross-cultural adaptation (CCA) process for use in non–English speaking populations and to determine the reliability and validity of the Malay Graded Chronic Pain Scale (M-GCPS) and Malay Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (M-JFLS). Methods: The English DC/TMD was translated into the Malay language using the forward-backward translation procedures specified in the INfORM guideline. The initial Malay instrument was pre-tested, and any discrepancies were identified and reconciled before producing the final Malay DC/TMD. Psychometric properties of the M-GCPS and M-JFLS were evaluated using a convenience sample of 252 subjects and were assessed using internal consistency and test-retest reliability, as well as face, content, concurrent, and construct validity testing. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha, while test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Concurrent and construct validity of both domains were performed using Spearman ρ correlation test. In addition, construct and discriminant validity were appraised using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively.
Keywords: cross-cultural adaptation, DC/TMD, Malay language, temporomandibular disorders, translation
Results: Cronbach’s alpha values for the M-GCPS and M-JFLS were 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. The ICC was 0.98 for the M-GCPS and 0.99 for M-JFLS. The majority of the tested associations for both domains were found to be statistically significant, with good positive correlations.
Conclusion: The M-GCPS and M-JFLS were found to be reproducible and valid. The Malay DC/TMD shows potential for use among Malay-speaking adults.