The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cleaning and surface treatment techniques in the repair of aged and contaminated yttrium oxide-stabilized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia (Y-TZP). From a total of 80 specimens of Y-TZP, 60 were subjected to aging simulation in a buccal environment with degradation in an autoclave for 24 hours (127ºC/1.5 bar) and contaminated with Streptococcus mutans. The surfaces were cleaned with a triple syringe (air/water jet; n = 20) or isopropyl alcohol (n = 20), or by prophylaxis (n = 20) with pumice and water. The remaining 20 specimens comprised the control group. All specimens were then treated with silicatization (n = 10 per group) or adhesive (n = 10 per group) and repaired with composite resin. Analyses of shear strength, failure mode, and roughness were performed by electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test (α = .05). Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Two-way ANOVA was significant for aging and surface treatments (P = .049), but was not significant for surface cleaning (P = .05). ANOVA results were statistically significant for surface treatments (P < .0001), with higher resistance for the silicatization groups. The failure mode was mostly adhesive for all specimens. The roughness was not significant for aging and control groups (P > .05). Triple-syringe and prophylaxis cleansing followed by silicatization was the most efficient treatment for the repair of aged and contaminated Y-TZP. There is reduced repair efficiency with the aging of Y-TZP.