Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to determine the efficacy of a damping capacity assessment in evaluating the implant stability in a simulated peri-implant bone loss model.
Keywords: damping capacity assessment, dental implant, implant stability, laser scanning vibrometer, micromotion, resonance frequency analysis
Materials and Methods: The same type of implant was placed sequentially in 0.5-mm-depth increments in polyurethane bone of a constant density, resulting in 11 specimens with varying surrounding bone levels. The implant stability was evaluated by a damping capacity assessment consisting of six consecutive impacts in one set. The damping results, including the contact time and stability index, were measured by three repeated sets of stability tests for each specimen. All implant micromotions were recorded in real time using a laser scanning vibrometer during these stability tests. The micromotions were analyzed in terms of three parameters: maximum displacement, expected mobility, and vibration frequency. Additionally, two other stability indices were acquired three times each for reference. Pearson correlation analysis was used to confirm the correlations among all the variables; P < .05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: As the peri-implant bone level increased, the contact time results decreased gradually from 502 to 290 μs, and the stability index increased from 55 to 78. The implant micromotions of all specimens showed a damped sine waveform graph, which can be divided into impact displacement and self-vibration patterns by the contact end points. As the implant stability increased, these contact end points converged toward the third peak, the maximum displacement and expected mobility decreased, and the vibration frequency increased (ρ = –0.85, –0.88, and 0.99, respectively). Two other stability indices reflected the implant stability due to peri-implant bone loss. The statistical analysis indicated significant correlations among all measured variables; in particular, the three stability indices exhibited high correlations with each other (ρ = 0.99, –0.99, and –1.00, respectively).
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the implant stability measured by a damping capacity assessment was suitable for investigating the extent of implant micromotions, which were determined by 0.5-mm horizontal changes in the peri-implant bone level.