Open AccessPubMed ID (PMID): 25911826Pages 9-20, Language: English, German
Objective: To evaluate the adhesive bonding performance of recently introduced tooth-colored CAD/CAM materials after different pretreatment protocols and using different luting materials.
Materials and methods: The CAD/CAM materials under investigation were e.max CAD (lithium disilicate glass ceramic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Celtra Duo (zirconia-reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic; Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany), Lava Ultimate (resin nano ceramic; 3M ESPE, Neuss, Germany), and Enamic (resin infiltrated ceramic; Vita, Bad Säckingen, Germany). A total of 240 blocks (n = 5) received various pretreatments (no pretreatment, silane, sandblasting, sandblasting + silane, hydrofluoric acid, hydrofluoric acid + silane), and then different classes of adhesive luting composites were applied (adhesive: Prime&Bond XP + SCA + Calibra; Dentsply DeTrey; self adhesive: RelyX Unicem; 3M ESPE). After 24 h water storage and 10,000 thermocycles (5°C/55°C), specimens were cut into beams and microtensile bond strengths were recorded.
Results: Bonding performance of recent CAD/CAM materials was clearly influenced by the pretreatment method (P < 0.05). In general, significantly higher μ-TBS values were recorded for the ceramic materials compared to the hybrid materials (P < 0.05). Among the hybrid materials, Enamic exhibited higher bond strengths than Lava Ultimate (P < 0.05). However, despite the differences found, all materials showed a high level of bonding performance, being sufficient to withstand intraoral chewing forces during mastication.
Conclusion: When pretreated as recommended by the manufacturers, recent tooth-colored CAD/CAM materials show an encouraging bonding performance for adhesive luting.
Keywords: adhesive luting, CAD/CAM, ceramics, enamel, dentin, hybrid materials, resin composite
PubMed ID (PMID): 25911827Pages 21-44, Language: English, German
As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology.
Keywords: dental, dental CAD/CAM, dental informatics, digital dentistry, digital workflow, practice management
PubMed ID (PMID): 25911828Pages 45-57, Language: English, German
The purpose of this study was to develop decision-making aids and recommendations for dental practitioners regarding the utilization and sharing of sensitive digital patient data. In the current environment of growing digitization, healthcare professionals need detailed knowledge of secure data management to maximize confidentiality and minimize the risks involved in both archiving patient data and sharing it through electronic channels. Despite well-defined legal requirements, an all-inclusive technological solution does not currently exist. The need for a preliminary review and critical appraisal of common practices of data transfer prompted a search of the literature and the Web to identify viable methods of secure data exchange and to develop a flowchart. A strong focus was placed on the transmission of datasets both smaller than and larger than 10 MB, and on secure communication by smartphone. Although encryption of patient-related data should be routine, it is often difficult to implement. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) are viable standards for secure e-mail encryption. Sharing of high-volume data should be accomplished with the help of file encryption. Careful handling of sensitive patient data is mandatory, and it is the end-user's responsibility to meet any requirements for encryption, preferably by using free, open-source (and hence transparent) software.
Keywords: apps, cloud computing, data transmission, decision- making, e-mail encryption, informatics, PGP, practice management, S/MIME, security
PubMed ID (PMID): 25911830Pages 65-84, Language: English, German
In esthetic rehabilitation, it is a challenge to meet the needs of patients with growing expectations. Creating predictable results is the key to success. This can be accomplished by performing a comprehensive esthetic diagnosis, elaborating treatment proposals that satisfy today's esthetic standards, and using modern computer-assisted methods. The diagnostic wax-up and mock-up are effective tools that allow patients to visualize treatment proposals without invasive procedures. Once the patient has approved the proposals, they provide the basis for the fabrication of the final restoration. The use of modern ceramic materials makes it possible to achieve a good esthetic outcome, even in restorations with extremely thin layer thicknesses. Esthetic cementation is the final step of restorative treatment.
Keywords: all-ceramic, CAD/CAM, esthetics, smile design, veneers