PubMed ID (PMID): 24892108Pages 3, Language: English
PubMed ID (PMID): 24892111Pages 9-43, Language: English
Purpose: The purpose of this clinical guidelines project was to determine the most appropriate surgical techniques, in terms of efficacy, complications, and patient opinions, for the treatment of buccal single gingival recessions without loss of interproximal soft and hard tissues. Methods: Literature searches were performed (electronically and manually) for entries up to 28 February, 2013 concerning the surgical approaches for the treatment of gingival recessions. Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and individual RCTs that reported at least 6 months of follow-up of surgical treatment of single gingival recessions were included. The full texts of the selected SRs and RCTs were analysed using checklists for qualitative evaluation according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) method. The following variables were evaluated: Complete Root Coverage (CRC); Recession Reduction (RecRed); complications; functional and aesthetic satisfaction of the patients; and costs of therapies.
Results: Out of 30 systematic reviews, 3 SRs and 16 out of 313 RCTs were judged to have a low risk for bias (SIGN code: 1+). At a short-term evaluation, the coronally advanced flap plus connective tissue graft method (CAF+CTG) resulted in the best treatment in terms of CRC and/or RecRed; in case of cervical abrasion and presence of root sensitivity CAF + CTG + Restoration caused less sensitivity than CAF+CTG. CAF produced less postoperative discomfort for patients. Limited information is available regarding postoperative dental hypersensitivity and aesthetic satisfaction of the patients.
Conclusion: In presence of aesthetic demands or tooth hypersensitivity, the best way to surgically treat single gingival recessions without loss of interproximal tissues is achieved using the CAF procedure associated with CTG. Considering postoperative discomfort, the CAF procedure is the less painful surgical approach, while the level of aesthetic satisfaction resulted higher after CAF either alone or with CTG. It is unclear how much tooth hypersensitivity is reduced by surgically covering buccal recessions. It is important to note that the present recommendations are based on short-term data (less than 1 year).
Source of funding: The guidelines project was made possible through self-financing by the authors.
Keywords: aesthetics, gingival recession, guidelines, mucogingival surgery, systematic review
PubMed ID (PMID): 24892113Pages 47-61, Language: English
Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of two implant designs with different prosthetic interfaces and neck configurations.
Materials and methods: Thirty-four partially edentate patients randomly received at least one NobelActive implant (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden) with back-tapered collar, internal conical connection and platform shifting design, and one NobelSpeedy implant (Nobel Biocare) with external hexagon and flat-to-flat implant-abutment interface according to a split-mouth design. Follow-up continued to 3 years post-loading. The primary outcome measures were the success rates of the implants and prostheses, and the occurrence of any surgical and prosthetic complications during the entire follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were: horizontal and vertical peri-implant marginal bone level (MBL) changes, resonance frequency analysis values at implant placement and loading (4 months), sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and plaque score (PS).
Results: No drop-out occurred. No implants and prostheses failures were observed to the 3-year follow-up. MBL changes were statistically significant different with better results for the NobelActive implants for both horizontal and vertical measurements (P = 0.000). After 3 years post-loading, the NobelActive implants underwent a mean vertical bone resorption of 0.66 mm, compared with 1.25 mm for the NobelSpeedy Groovy implants (P = 0.000); the mean horizontal bone resorption was 0.19 mm for the NobelActive implants and 0.60 mm for the NobelSpeedy Groovy implants (P = 0.000). A high ISQ value was found for both implants, and no statistically significant difference was found for ISQ mean values between interventions (P = 0.941 at baseline; P = 0.454 at implantabutment connection; P = 0.120 at prosthesis delivery). All implants showed good periodontal health at the 3-year-in-function visit, with no significant differences between groups.
Conclusion: The results of this research suggest that in well-maintained patients, the MBL changes could be affected by the different implant design. After 4 months of unloaded healing, as well as after 3 years in function, both implants provided good results, however vertical and horizontal bone loss had statistically significant differences between the two groups (difference of 0.58 ± 0.10 mm for the vertical MBL, and 0.4 ± 0.05 mm for the horizontal MBL), with lower values in the Nobel Active implants, compared to the NobelSpeedy Groovy implants.
Keywords: bone level, bone loss, dental implants, platform shifting, implant-abutment interface
PubMed ID (PMID): 24892114Pages 65-75, Language: English
Purpose: To compare the efficacy of 1-stage versus 2-stage lateral maxillary sinus lift procedures.
Materials and methods: Sixty partially edentulous patients requiring 1 to 3 implants and having 1 to 3 mm of residual bone height and at least 5 mm bone width below the maxillary sinus, as measured on CT scans were selected. They were randomised according to a parallel group study design into two equal arms to receive either a 1-stage lateral window sinus lift with simultaneous implant placement or a 2-stage procedure with implant placement delayed by 4 months, using a bone substitute in three different centres. Implants were submerged for 4 months, loaded with reinforced provisional prostheses, which were replaced, after 4 months, by definitive prostheses. Outcome measures, assessed by masked assessors, were: augmentation procedure failures; prosthesis failures and implant failures; complications; and marginal peri-implant bone level changes. Patients were followed up to 1 year after loading. Only data of implants placed in 1 to 3 mm of bone height were reported.
Results: Two patients dropped out from the 1-stage group and none from the 2-stage group. No sinus lift procedure failed in the 1-stage group but one failed in the 2-stage group, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 1.00). Two prostheses failed or could not be placed in the planned time in the 1-stage group and one in the 2-stage group, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.51). Three implants failed in three patients of the 1-stage group, versus one implant in the 2-stage group, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.28). Two complications occurred in the 1-stage group and one in the 2-stage group, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.61). One year after loading, 1-stage treated patients lost an average of -1.01 mm (SD: 0.56) of peri-implant bone and 2-stage sites about -0.93 mm (SD: 0.40). There were no statistically significant differences in bone level change between groups 1 year after loading (-0.08 mm 95%CI: -0.33 to 0.18 P = 0.56).
Conclusion: No statistically significant differences were observed between implants placed according to 1- or 2-stage sinus lift procedures. However this study may suggest that in patients having residual bone height between 1 to 3 mm below the maxillary sinus, there might be a slightly higher risk for implant failures when performing a 1-stage lateral sinus lift procedure.
Keywords: anorganic bovine bone, dental implants, sinus lift, surgical procedures
PubMed ID (PMID): 24892115Pages 79-85, Language: English
Purpose: The treatment of gingival inflammation is associated with improved glycaemic control in diabetic patients. The goal of this parallel-randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to test the shortterm effects of professional oral hygiene procedures on plasma glucose levels in systemically healthy individuals.
Materials and methods: Systemically healthy individuals with gingivitis and no sign of periodontitis were enrolled at a private practice in Italy. Patients were randomised to either a 1 hour (h) session of professional oral hygiene procedures or to 1 h in the waiting room. Not fasting blood glucose levels were assessed by a blind examiner at baseline (T0), 1 h (T1) and 2 h (T2) after procedures and finally 1 week after (T3). Oral hygiene procedures were then performed also in the control group.
Results: Twenty patients were randomly allocated to each group. There were no drop-outs. Blood glucose levels at T0 (P = 0.0001) and time of measurement (P = 0.0001) were statistically significant, while oral hygiene procedures were not (mean difference between groups 0.77 mg/dl, 95%CI -2.64 mg/dl; 4.18 mg/dl, P = 0.6581). Mean blood glucose levels decreased between T0 and T1, were stable between T1 and T2 and showed similar levels to baseline after 1 week (T3) for both groups.
Conclusion: This short-term RCT showed that professional oral hygiene procedures were not able to influence plasma glucose levels in individuals with gingivitis, but otherwise systemically healthy.
Keywords: gingivitis, glucose level, glycaemia, treatment
PubMed ID (PMID): 24892116Pages 89-98, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome of two implants placed flapless in fully edentulous mandibles and immediately restored with a metal-resin screw-retained cross-arch prostheses 3 years after loading.
Materials and methods: Eighty consecutively patients were recruited. Implants for immediate loading had to be inserted with a minimum torque of 80 Ncm. Outcome measures, evaluated by two independent assessors, were: prosthesis and implant failures, complications, marginal bone level changes, implant stability quotient (ISQ) values and patient satisfaction.
Results: Three years after loading, all prostheses were in function although one patient did not come back for the 1- and 3-year follow-ups. Two implants failed early in two patients, but were successfully replaced and their prostheses remade. Twelve complications occurred in 10 patients but were all successfully treated. After 3 years, mean marginal bone loss was 0.43 mm, mean ISQ values decreased from 75.4 to 75.3, and all but four patients were fully satisfied with the therapy. Four patients were partially satisfied because, lacking molars, they could not chew as they wished.
Conclusion: Immediately loaded mandibular cross-arch partial dentures can be supported by only two dental implants up to 3 years. Longer follow-ups (around 10 years) are needed to know the prognosis of this treatment modality.
Keywords: cohort study, dental implants, flapless, immediate loading
PubMed ID (PMID): 24892117Pages 101-102, Language: English