Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2022
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2805333, PubMed ID (PMID): 35285594Pages 69-76, Language: English
Purpose: The intention of the study was to evaluate whether Sub-Saharan schoolteachers may play a key role in oral health promotion of primary schoolchildren, particularly in terms of prevention of HIV/AIDS-related oral health problems.
Materials and Methods: The study examined the level of knowledge about oral disease and the prevention of HIV/AIDS oral lesions amongst schoolteachers of Tanzania and Burkina Faso, identified their sources of information, and evaluated their ability for HIV/AIDS intervention. A multi-centre cross-sectional study was implemented in the two Sub-Saharan African countries. Participants comprised primary school teachers selected by stratified cluster sampling: 261 teachers from Tanzania and 313 teachers from Burkina Faso. All participants completed a structured questionnaire prepared for self-administration. The questions were designed from a standardised questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization.
Results: Most teachers knew about the principal causes of the major oral diseases and the means of disease prevention. Nearly all teachers (95.6%) were aware of HIV/AIDS and they knew (92.3%) a virus was the direct cause of AIDS. Teachers were well informed of the general symptoms of HIV/AIDS, although oral symptoms were mentioned less often. In all, 17.6% of schoolteachers reported that children suffering from HIV/AIDS were found in their classes and 10.3% of teachers were conscious of students receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Knowledge about the disease seemed to reflect mass media as a source, while teacher colleagues and health personnel played a somewhat lesser role in communication. In total, 83.2% emphasised that they should teach children about HIV/AIDS and the mouth. Schoolteachers from Tanzania (70.5%) were more often engaged in classroom-based oral health education than were the Burkinabe teachers (53.9%).
Conclusion: The study confirms that schoolteachers may be a relevant source in the fight against HIV/AIDS among children. However, they would benefit from interaction with health personnel.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS oral lesions, oral disease prevention, schoolteachers, public health
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2021
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2448571, PubMed ID (PMID): 34918501Pages 673-682, Language: English
Purpose: 1. To assess the oral health status and health behaviour of 5- to 6-year-oldchildren and the influence of socio-behavioural factors on oral health among children, and 2. evaluate dental knowledge and attitudes related to oral health promotion of children among mothers and schoolteachers in Palestine.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2017, and recruited samples of children (n = 3939, 53.8% boys, 44.8% girls) from 61 primary schools, their mothers and schoolteachers (n = 53). Participants were selected randomly by multistage stratified cluster sampling. Calibrated dentists performed oral examinations of 5- to 6-year-old schoolchildren based on WHO criteria. Mothers and teachers completed WHO self-administrated questionnaires to assess children’s oral health behaviour, as well as their knowledge and attitudes towards children’s dental care.
Results: Caries prevalence of primary teeth was 83.4% and caries experience was high (dmf-s = 11.17). One-fourth of children suffered from pain or discomfort from teeth, and 57.7% of children had seen a dentist within the past 12 months, frequently due to pain or problems. Consumption of sugars was frequent and only 19.7% brushed their teeth every day. Neglect of dental visits, infrequent toothbrushing, being a child from families of urban settings and high socioeconomic status were greatly affected by caries. Mothers and schoolteachers had mostly positive attitudes towards school-based oral health care. However, the availability of dental health education materials was extremely low.
Conclusion: The establishment of school-based oral health programmes, including effective use of toothpaste containing fluoride for caries prevention, is greatly needed to improve the oral health of Palestinian children. The introduction of fluoridated school milk is highly recommended. The establishement of school programmes should encompass active involvement of schoolteachers and mothers to promote the development of healthy lifestyles and sustainable oral health behaviours among schoolchildren. Provision of materials for health education by schoolteachers and mothers is urgently needed.
Keywords: dietary habits, oral hygiene behaviour, schoolchildren, school oral health promotion, socio-behavioural risk factors
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2020
Open Access Online OnlyCariologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a44322, PubMed ID (PMID): 32238990Pages 177-183, Language: English
Purpose: Improved oral health of children is noted in most Western countries, but this coincides with a high burden of oral disease in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The purpose of the present study was to describe the current level of dental caries in Hungarian children aged 5, 6, and 12 years and to assess the long-term trends in caries over 30 years. In addition, the report aims to highlight the oral health habits of 12-year-old children in Hungary.
Materials and Methods: A representative survey was undertaken in 2016–2017 according to the WHO Pathfinder methodology, which was also applied in previous national oral health surveys of 1985, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. Children of 5–6 and 12 years were sampled systematically in all surveys over 30 years. Data were gathered through clinical examinations and a questionnaire used for 12-year-olds.
Results: In 2016–2017, 42.6% of 5- to 6-year-olds were caries free, with the proportion lower in rural than urban settings. Approximately four primary teeth were affected by caries among children aged 5–6 years. Most of the disease burden consisted of untreated caries. Caries experience was higher for children living in rural areas. At age 12, about two permanent teeth suffered from caries, and the D-component of the caries index was high. The percentage of caries-free 6-year-olds grew from 9% in 1985 to 42.6% in 2016-2017. In 1985, 12-year-olds had on average 5 teeth affected by caries, and after 30 years, the level of caries declined to 2.3 DMFT in 2016–2017. The responses to the questionnaire showed that 11.9% of 12-year-olds visited the dentist because of oral pain or discomfort and 40.5% were dissatisfied by the appearance of their teeth. About 40% of children consumed soft drinks or sweets/candy, several times a day.
Conclusions: Hungary has not yet achieved the WHO goals for children aged 5–6. While Hungary accomplished the WHO goal for oral health of 12-year-olds by the year 2000, it is seems unrealistic for the country to achieve the WHO goal for 12-year-olds by the year 2020. For better oral health of children, strong emphasis should be given to population-directed oral disease prevention, including the reduction of sugar consumption and implementing public health programmes for the effective use of fluoride.
Keywords: dental caries, oral disease prevention, oral health behaviour, national health surveillance, children
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2020
Open Access Online OnlyCariologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a44309, PubMed ID (PMID): 32238991Pages 185-196, Language: English
Purpose: The first large-scale epidemiological survey on dental caries in Slovenia was conducted in 1987 and repeated in 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2013 and 2017, using the same methodology. The aim of the study was to examine the trend of caries in 12-year-olds in Slovenia during a 30-year time period. The changes over time in caries experience were compared with disease trends observed in other European countries.
Study Populations and Methods: The WHO National Oral Health Pathfinder Survey was applied in all seven surveys (1987–2017). The surveys were carried out in all nine geographical regions of Slovenia. For each subject, the caries experience and presence of sealants were recorded.
Results: The mean DMFT of 12-year-olds decreased significantly from 5.1 in 1987 to 1.5 in 2017 (p < 0.0001). The percentage of persons with sealed teeth increased from 6% in 1987 to 94% in 2017, and the percentage of caries-free persons increased from 6% to 42%.
Conclusion: The implementation of a nation-wide preventive programme was determined to significantly contribute to the effective control of caries and continuously improve the oral health of Slovenian children. In an international perspective, the Slovenian achievements in disease prevention in terms of caries prevalence reduction may be important for other countries of the region.
Keywords: children, dental caries, disease prevention, epidemiology, fissure sealing
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2020
Open Access Online OnlyEditorialDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b871931Pages 1-2, Language: English
Summary: Oral/dental healthcare delivery in the post-pandemic era will be different, with challenges to overcome and positive opportunities to take. Managing the needs, wants and expectations of all stakeholders must be communicated and actioned effectively, moving forwards. It is the responsibility of all stakeholders to work together to help provide high quality, evidence-based pragmatic oral healthcare delivery for the future. Patient-focused, team-delivered, minimum intervention oral healthcare (MIOC) is applicable to all patients at all stages of their lives and underpins long-term delivery of better oral and systemic health to all. Guidance, peer-support, whole-team training along with agile commissioning and suitable incentivisation will need to support the paradigm shift to prevention-based MIOC clinical practice.
Keywords: Covid-19, dentistry, minimally invasive dentistry, minimum/minimal intervention, oral healthcare, pandemic
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 2/2018
DOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a40309, PubMed ID (PMID): 29736489Pages 113-124, Language: English
Purpose: This report intends to review the global burden of oral disease among older people and to examine their oral health needs. The evidence on the inter-relationships between poor oral health conditions of older people, general health and quality of life is highlighted. Finally, WHO strategies to improve oral health of older people are reviewed.
Methods: The information relevant to this review was extracted from the WHO Global Oral Health Data Bank, the PubMed database, and the Cochrane Library. Surveys were carried out according to the criteria recommended by the WHO epidemiological manual Oral Health Surveys - Basic Methods. In addition, global data were sought on coverage of oral health care among older people. Finally, WHO policy documents on health care for aged people were gathered through the WHO website.
Results: Across the globe, many older people suffer from oral pain or discomfort. Poor oral health during old age is mostly manifest in high caries experience, high prevalence rates of advanced periodontal disease, severe tooth loss, dry mouth, and oral pre-cancer/cancer. In both developing and developed countries, the burden of disease is particularly high among underprivileged and disadvantaged older people. In numerous countries, high proportions of the aged population are not covered by primary oral health care; this is mainly the case in low and middle income countries due to a critical shortage of dentists.
Conclusions: In 2015, the WHO published the World Report on Ageing and Health, which outlines a framework for action to foster healthy ageing. The policies are highly relevant to the improvement of oral health. Transformation of oral health systems away from a disease-based curative model and towards disease prevention, as well as the provision of older-person-centred integrated care are required. Moreover, wide-ranging public health action on ageing is urgently needed.
Keywords: older people, need for oral health care, primary health care, public health strategies, WHO approaches
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2016
DOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a35643, PubMed ID (PMID): 26904752Pages 3-4, Language: English
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2015
DOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a33758, PubMed ID (PMID): 25713815Pages 3, Language: English
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 3/2014
DOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a32808, PubMed ID (PMID): 25262589Pages 199, Language: English
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 2/2014
DOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a31220, PubMed ID (PMID): 24624383Pages 99-107, Language: English
Purpose: No nationwide oral health survey has previously been carried out in Jordan. The aims of the study were to assess the burden of dental caries and gingival health among children aged 6 and 12 years in relation to sociodemographic factors and to ascertain the trend over time in the occurrence of caries and the need for dental care.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out which included 2496 children aged 6 years and 2560 children aged 12 years selected by stratified cluster sampling. Children were examined in schools and data comprised information about caries and gingival health status. WHO methodology and criteria were applied. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information about oral hygiene, dental visits, consumption of sugars and parents' level of education.
Results: The caries prevalence rates were 76.4% in 6-year-olds and 45.5% in 12-year-olds, and caries experience was 3.3 dmft and 1.1 DMFT, respectively. The prevalence of caries varied significantly by sex and geographical region. In both age groups, children of the social low and middle groups had significantly higher levels of caries experience, more untreated decayed teeth and fewer filled teeth than did children of the upper socioeconomic group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that social class was the most important independent variable for caries. The results from 2005 were compared with similar data collected in the capital, Amman, in 1993. For all social classes, the mean caries experience and the amount of untreated dental caries increased over time. Moreover, 17.7% of 6-year-old children and 49.1% of the 12-year-olds had gingival bleeding. Significant differences in gingival health were found by sex, location, geographical areas and socioeconomic group.
Conclusion: Oral disease is a significant public health problem in Jordan. Strengthening of the school oral health programme is needed for effective prevention and control of caries and promoting gingival health. A systematic school oral health programme including oral health promotion should be established.
Keywords: dental caries, gingival health, Jordan, social inequality, trends in dental caries