The removal of retained mandibular third molars is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Because of the close anatomic positional relationship of the third molars to the adjacent teeth and to the inferior alveolar nerve, there is a risk of damage to the surrounding structures during surgical removal. For uncomplicated removal, knowledge of the different retention forms and a suitable atraumatic operation technique is important. After the block anesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve and the buccal nerve, the cutting direction must be determined so that a mucoperiosteal flap with vestibular stem can be lifted. After the lingual subperiosteal insertion of a rasp to protect the lingual nerve, the third molar is exposed by buccal osteotomy with ball-shaped hard metal burs as far as its largest circumference and removed by careful luxation movements.