DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4417923, PubMed ID (PMID): 37724759Pages 610-611, Language: English
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4232527, PubMed ID (PMID): 37485928Pages 612-620, Language: English
Objective: The correlation between crestal bone loss at teeth and probing pocket depth (PPD) has been established. Whether these findings can also be applied to implants is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between crestal bone loss and PPD at teeth and implants.
Method and materials: Thirty-one periodontitis-susceptible patients were rehabilitated with fixed implant-supported single crowns and fixed partial dentures. Each patient was examined over a 5- to 20-year period in a 3- to 6-month strict recall program. At each session, periodontal clinical parameters were recorded at teeth and implants. In addition, standardized periapical radiographs were taken after superstructure insertion (baseline) and then at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years.
Results: The survival rate of implants (94.0%) and teeth (97.3%) did not significantly differ in all patients after 20 years (P = .68). Almost all patients had a PPD ≥ 5 mm at implants and teeth throughout the observation period. The crestal bone loss at implants and teeth increased continuously, especially in patients with advanced periodontitis, without a correlation with PPD. A few patients (n = 5) had a PPD ≥ 5 mm and annual bone loss ≥ 0.2 mm at one implant, with a correlation between bone loss and PPD.
Conclusion: In healthy implants and teeth, moderate crestal bone loss is present without correlation with PPD. A few patients showed progressive crestal bone loss at only one implant, with a correlation with PPD.
Keywords: aggressive periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, crestal bone loss, dental implants, probing depths
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4007601, PubMed ID (PMID): 37010441Pages 622-628, Language: English
Objective: To histologically evaluate the effects of a novel human recombinant amelogenin (rAmelX) on periodontal wound healing/regeneration in intrabony defects.
Method and materials: Intrabony defects were surgically created in the mandible of three minipigs. Twelve defects were randomly treated with either rAmelX and carrier (test group) or with the carrier only (control group). At 3 months following reconstructive surgery, the animals were euthanized, and the tissues histologically processed. Thereafter, descriptive histology, histometry, and statistical analyses were performed.
Results: Postoperative clinical healing was uneventful. At the defect level, no adverse reactions (eg, suppuration, abscess formation, unusual inflammatory reaction) were observed with a good biocompatibility of the tested products. The test group yielded higher values for new cementum formation (4.81 ± 1.17 mm) compared to the control group (4.39 ± 1.71 mm) without reaching statistical significance (P = .937). Moreover, regrowth of new bone was greater in the test compared to the control group (3.51 mm and 2.97 mm, respectively, P = .309).
Conclusions: The present results provided for the first-time histologic evidence for periodontal regeneration following the use of rAmelX in intrabony defects, thus pointing to the potential of this novel recombinant amelogenin as a possible alternative to regenerative materials from animal origins.
Keywords: amelogenin, enamel matrix derivative, intrabony defects, periodontal regeneration, recombinant, wound healing
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4157323, PubMed ID (PMID): 37313578Pages 630-639, Language: English
Objectives: Although minimally and noninvasive caries management are advocated in pediatric dentistry, extensive caries progression often requires endodontic treatment followed by crowning of the tooth. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the success of esthetic preformed zirconia crowns (PZCs) compared to the standard preformed metal crowns (PMCs) after pulpotomy in primary molars retrospectively.
Method and materials: Patients’ digital records in a specialized pediatric clinic in Germany were analyzed to include 2- to 9-year-olds, who had received one or more PMCs or PZCs after a pulpotomy between 2016 and 2020. The main outcomes were success, minor failure (restoration loss, wear, or fracture), or major failure (need for extraction or pulpectomy).
Results: In total, 151 patients with 249 teeth (PMC, n = 149; PZC, n = 100) were included. The mean follow-up time was (19.9 months), with 90.4% of the crowns followed for at least 18 months. The majority of the crowns were considered successful (94.4%). The differences in the success rates between PMCs (96%) and PZCs (92%) did not reach the level of statistical significance (P = .182). All minor failures (1.6%) were in the PZC group and located in the maxilla. Independent of crown type, especially first primary molars were prone to failure (7.9%; second primary molars, 3.3%).
Conclusion: PMCs and PZCs both show high clinical success rates as restorations of primary teeth after a pulpotomy. However, there was a tendency of greater minor or major failure in the PZC group.
Keywords: early childhood caries, preformed crowns, primary molars, pulpotomy, restorations
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4146671, PubMed ID (PMID): 37288651Pages 640-649, Language: English
Objectives: Low bone density and lack of adequate vertical bone dimension as a result of maxillary sinus pneumatization present some of the most problematic cases for endosseous implant applications in posterior maxillary regions that hinder prosthetic rehabilitation. The overall objectives of the study were to assess the histologic, histomorphometric, and radiologic evaluation of biopsies gathered from maxillary sinuses that were grafted with three different bovine bone particles (Bio-Oss, Cerabone, and Ti-Oss) and analyze the volume of the bone graft and the quantity of new bone formation.
Method and materials: Thirty-six patients with < 4 mm of residual ridge height unilaterally in the posterior maxilla were equally divided into three groups, each of which received different bovine bone particles for maxillary sinus augmentation. Six months later, biopsies were harvested for histologic and histomorphometric evaluations. Volumetric changes in maxillary sinus augmentation were analyzed at 1-week and 6-month time-points following maxillary sinus augmentation surgery.
Results: Histomorphometric and histologic analysis revealed a significant difference between the Ti-Oss group compared with the Bio-Oss and Cerabone groups (P = .011). In terms of residual graft particles and soft tissue, there were no significant differences between groups. 3D volumetric reductions between 1-week (baseline) and 6-month time-points recorded significant graft volume reduction in all groups (P < .05). Significantly greater bone resorption and lower new-bone formation were manifested in the Ti-Oss group in comparison to the other groups.
Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, histologic and radiologic results indicated that Bio-Oss and Cerabone could be used efficiently in sinus augmentation procedures, while further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the Ti-Oss material in maxillary sinus augmentation.
Keywords: bone volume, bovine bone, endosseous implant, histomorphometry, maxillary sinus pneumatization, sinus augmentation
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4157337, PubMed ID (PMID): 37313575Pages 652-657, Language: English
Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) is an uncommon odontogenic tumor considered to be the solid, tumorous variant of calcifying odontogenic cyst. DGCT is characterized by islands of ameloblastoma-like epithelial cells that resemble the enamel organ, the presence of ghost cells, and dentinoid material. This article reports a rare case of dentinogenic ghost cell tumor associated with an odontoma in an adult patient, with a review of the literature. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there have only been four case reports of DGCT associated with odontoma, all of which occurred in children and adults younger than 30 years old.
Keywords: dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, odontogenic tumor, odontoma
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4154345, PubMed ID (PMID): 37305957Pages 658-670, Language: English
Objective: Xerostomia (or oral dryness) is most commonly caused by medications that affect saliva secretion, and is often accompanied by symptoms of orofacial pain. Medication-induced xerostomia may or may not be associated with objectively demonstrable hyposalivation. The present study attempted to systematically identify an association between medication-induced xerostomia and orofacial pain.
Method and materials: A systematic search was conducted using the following databases: WoS, PubMed, SCOPUS, and MEDLINE. The search terms used were: xerostomia OR “dry mouth” AND medication AND (“oral pain” OR “orofacial pain” OR “craniofacial pain” OR “burning mouth” OR “glossodynia”) NOT Sjögren’s NOT cancer. Inclusion criteria were medication-induced xerostomia and reported symptoms of orofacial pain. Four researchers performed the selection process and quality assessment and two researchers conducted data extraction.
Results: Seven studies with a total of 1,029 patients were included. These studies were conducted between 2009 and 2022 and consisted of cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, and one randomized crossover trial. The studies consisted of a total of 1,029 participants. All studies included male and female participants whose mean ages ranged from 43 to 100 years.
Conclusions: A positive association was found between medication-induced xerostomia and orofacial pain. No associations were found between salivary flow measurements (hyposalivation) and medication use. Future research should focus on saliva flow measurements, standardized assessment of medication-induced xerostomia, as well as the inclusion of accompanying orofacial pain diagnosis in the medical history to allow for higher level of evidence in establishing reliable predictors of medication-induced oral health damage to facilitate clinical prevention and management.
Keywords: dry mouth, medications, oral pain, orofacial pain, xerostomia
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4170135, PubMed ID (PMID): 37338288Pages 672-679, Language: English
Objectives: Work in animal models has implicated excessive occlusal forces and occlusal trauma as co-destructive factors for periodontitis. The main aim of the present study was to make a radiographic assessment of the effects of excessive occlusal forces, ie occlusal/incisal tooth wear, widening of the periodontal space, and the presence of a mandibular torus, on interproximal marginal bone loss in a large series of patients. A secondary aim was to evaluate the statistical correlation between the parameters in two specific teeth and those of 12 teeth for marginal bone loss and six teeth for occlusal/incisal tooth wear within the same individual.
Method and materials: A total of 1,950 full-mouth radiographic surveys were analyzed retrospectively. Interproximal marginal bone loss was quantified relative to the root length (Schei ruler technique). In addition, occlusal/incisal tooth wear and periodontal ligament space widening of the periodontal space were assessed, as well as the presence of a mandibular torus. Odds ratio and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the association between occlusal trauma and marginal bone loss.
Results: The correlation of the measured parameters between the values for specific teeth and the whole dentition was evaluated from data from the first 400 radiographs. Teeth 41 and 33 showed the best correlation to the whole dentition: 0.85 for interproximal marginal bone loss, 0.83 for widening of the periodontal space, and 0.97 for occlusal/incisal tooth wear. The results of a logistic regression analysis with age as an independent variable, revealed a significant association between bone loss and both tooth wear (odds ratio = 2.767) and bone loss and widening of the periodontal space (odds ratio = 2.585).
Conclusion: Tooth wear was positively correlated to both widening of the periodontal space and marginal bone loss. No correlation was found between the presence of a mandibular torus and marginal bone loss.
Keywords: excessive occlusal forces, mandibular torus, marginal bone loss, periodontal space widening, radiographic evaluation, tooth wear
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4157183, PubMed ID (PMID): 37313576Pages 680-693, Language: English
Objectives: This study aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) model that can determine automatic tooth numbering, frenulum attachments, gingival overgrowth areas, and gingival inflammation signs on intraoral photographs and to evaluate the performance of this model.
Method and materials: A total of 654 intraoral photographs were used in the study (n = 654). All photographs were reviewed by three periodontists, and all teeth, frenulum attachment, gingival overgrowth areas, and gingival inflammation signs on photographs were labeled using the segmentation method in a web-based labeling software. In addition, tooth numbering was carried out according to the FDI system. An AI model was developed with the help of YOLOv5x architecture with labels of 16,795 teeth, 2,493 frenulum attachments, 1,211 gingival overgrowth areas, and 2,956 gingival inflammation signs. The confusion matrix system and ROC (receiver operator characteristic) analysis were used to statistically evaluate the success of the developed model.
Results: The sensitivity, precision, F1 score, and AUC (area under the curve) for tooth numbering were 0.990, 0.784, 0.875, and 0.989; for frenulum attachment these were 0.894, 0.775, 0.830, and 0.827; for gingival overgrowth area these were 0.757, 0.675, 0.714, and 0.774; and for gingival inflammation sign 0.737, 0.823, 0.777, and 0.802, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of the present study show that AI systems can be successfully used to interpret intraoral photographs. These systems have the potential to accelerate the digital transformation in the clinical and academic functioning of dentistry with the automatic determination of anatomical structures and dental conditions from intraoral photographs.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, deep learning, dental photography, periodontology