Buccal bone remodeling around immediate implants placed in animals with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes has not been investigated. The present histologic and microcomputed tomography (μCT) in vivo experiment assessed the buccal bone remodeling around immediate implants, extraction socket healing, and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in dogs with and without STZ-induced diabetes. Three male beagle dogs with STZ-induced diabetes and three healthy dogs (controls) were included. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a glucometer. Under general anesthesia, all animals underwent atraumatic tooth extraction of bilateral maxillary and mandibular second premolar teeth using Piezosurgery and immediate implant placement in the distal root socket. Primary closure was achieved for all implants and adjacent socket sites. After 11 months, all animals were sacrificed, and buccal bone thickness (BBT), marginal bone loss (MBL), BIC, and mesial extraction socket bone volume were assessed in control and diabetic animals using histologic and μCT examination. High-resolution μCT analyses were performed to identify the percentage of osteocytes and blood vessels in bone specimens harvested from a mesial extraction socket in each group. BBT and BIC were significantly higher in control dogs (P < .05), and diabetic dogs demonstrated significantly more MBL than control dogs (P < .05). Compared to healthy subjects, the sockets of induced diabetic dogs lost over 50% of bone horizontally and vertically. Control group had more significant osteocytes (38.85%) and blood vessels (37.87%), whereas the same values for STZ-induced diabetic dogs were 27.92% and 27.76%, respectively. Buccal bone loss and MBL were significantly higher around immediate implants placed in dogs with STZ-induced diabetes and were associated with multiple implant buccal thread exposure. A large percentage of socket space in diabetic dogs healed with nonosseous structure following tooth extraction.