The objective of this study was to determine the normal values of faciolingual thickness (FLT) of the papilla base, papilla height (PH), and gingival angle (GA) among Chinese adults and the association of FLT with the gingival phenotype. The periodontal phenotypes of 105 volunteers were confirmed by Kan et al’s periodontal probe transmission method and classification. All volunteers received complete supragingival scaling and were recalled after 1 week for clinical examination and for recording various periodontal indices, including Plaque Index, Gingival Index, and periodontal depth. The FLT, PH, and GA of maxillary anterior teeth were measured, and their associations were analyzed. The mean FLT of papilla between the right canine (CA) and lateral incisor (LI) was 8.11 ± 0.64 mm; between the right LI and central incisor (CI) was 7.77 ± 0.64 mm; between the right CI and left CI was 8.49 ± 0.66 mm; between the left CI and LI was 7.62 ± 0.63 mm; and between the left LI and CA was 8.17 ± 0.63 mm. The thin-phenotype group showed a greater PH and FLT than the thick phenotype group. Inversely, the GA of the thick-phenotype group was greater than the corresponding values for the thin-phenotype group. In Chinese residents, the high and thick papilla are associated with the thin phenotype, while the low and thin papilla are associated with the thick phenotype. The GA is negatively correlated with PH. A weak correlation exists between the GA and FLT of papilla.