DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1043971, PubMed-ID: 33829752Seiten: 381-382, Sprache: Englisch
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1044039, PubMed-ID: 33688715Seiten: 384-392, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: Endodontic treatment is a routine procedure performed by general dental practitioners and endodontists on a daily basis. Fortunately, most patients undergoing endodontic therapy show a favorable outcome with uneventful healing. However, some patients develop pain following endodontic therapy. A majority of these patients develop acute, nociceptive pain (“flare-up”) that resolves with appropriate treatment and subsequent healing. The dental profession is very adept at successfully managing the acute pain that occurs early following endodontic treatment. A minority of patients, however, develop ongoing pain following root canal therapy, termed chronic if persisting for 3 months or more. The diagnosis and management of chronic postendodontic pain are often challenging. This article aims to review pain following endodontic therapy, ranging from acute to chronic pain and its management, with specific emphasis on chronic pain, its pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and management modalities.
Conclusion: Endodontic treatment rarely leads to chronic neuropathic pain; however, when the nerve injury occurs and results in posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathic pain (PTNP), treatment options are very limited and rarely successful. Therefore, all steps should be taken to avoid nerve injury. Prevention of endodontic treatment related PTNP is crucial and achieved through early recognition, and prompt management.
Schlagwörter: acute pain, chronic pain, endodontics, neuropathic pain, postendodontic therapy, traumatic nerve injury, trigeminal nerve
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b937015, PubMed-ID: 33533238Seiten: 394-401, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: Transgingival probing is often used in the clinic to assess gingival thickness. However, what is not completely known is how well this method represents the true value of soft tissue thickness. The aim of this study was to assess differences and variation in gingival thickness when measured with transgingival probing or scanned with an intraoral device. Method and materials: This ex vivo study evaluated gingival thickness on 20 porcine cadavers. Gingival thickness was assessed at both central and lateral mandibular incisors through transgingival probing with a standard metal periodontal probe and also using intraoral scanning, which was considered as the method providing the ‘true value’ of soft tissue thickness. Intra-examiner repeatability and method error were evaluated.
Results: No evidence of systematic difference for any of the mandibular central or lateral incisors (mandibular right incisors: mean difference −0.17 to −0.01 mm, and mandibular left incisors: mean difference −0.11 to 0.04 mm) was observed between the periodontal probe and intraoral scanning methods. The absolute differences between the repeated measurements with intraoral scanning for each tooth type (n = 30) were calculated: the overall median was 0.089 mm and the interquartile range was 0.080 mm.
Conclusions: Transgingival probing with a standard metal periodontal probe for assessing gingival thickness is a reliable method, with values very close to the true gingival thickness, and it can thus be considered as the clinical gold standard.
Schlagwörter: periodontal, scan, tooth anatomy
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b912657, PubMed-ID: 33491386Seiten: 402-410, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of periodontal regenerative therapy using enamel matrix derivatives (EMDs) in aggressive periodontitis patients, and to determine the contribution of maintenance via periodic supportive periodontal treatment. Method and materials: In total, 28 patients were evaluated, comprising 74 intrabony sites. In 50 sites EMD gel was applied, and in 24 sites EMD was combined with deproteinized bovine xenograft. Patients were assigned to a supportive periodontal treatment program; 18 patients fulfilled the program, defined as the well-maintained (WM) group; 10 did not comply, defined as the nonmaintained (NM) group. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone level (BL) were recorded. Data were compared presurgically (T0), 6 months postsurgery (T1), and 3 to 10 years posttreatment (T2).
Results: Both surgical modalities achieved similar PD reduction, CAL gain, and BL gain, maintained over time. T1 to T2 showed a mean gain/loss of 0.21 ± 0.5 mm and 0.04 ± 1.1 mm, and −0.65 ± 3.0 mm and −0.73 ± 3.0 mm for PD and CAL, respectively, at the WM/NM groups, respectively. BL gain was 21.6% and 11.5% for the WM/NM groups, respectively (P < .05). The courses of the PD, CAL, and BL differed between the WM and NM groups during the observation periods (P < .05).
Conclusion: Periodontal regeneration via EMD with/without the combination of deproteinized bovine xenograft can be maintained in aggressive periodontitis cases. It appears that periodic supportive periodontal treatment is a determinant factor in achieving this task.
Schlagwörter: aggressive periodontitis, clinical attachment level, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), probing depth, regenerative therapy, supportive periodontal treatment
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b912671, PubMed-ID: 33491387Seiten: 412-424, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To analyze the loss of abutment teeth for double crown-retained removable partial dentures (DC-RPDs) compared to clasp-retained removable partial dentures (C-RPDs). Method and materials: A search was conducted in the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science databases, and a manual search. The search was conducted based on the PICO framework with inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extracting the data of selected studies, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate abutment loss with 95% confidence interval (CI). The statistical significance was defined as P < .05, and the heterogeneity of the data was assessed based on the chi-squared test and I2 statistics. Risk of bias assessment was conducted using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
Results: A total of 4,692 records were identified from electronic databases and 38 studies were included for quantitative synthesis of 3,393 subjects with 13,552 abutment teeth. A total of 1,226 abutment teeth were lost with > 4,016 RPDs. Seven studies were compounded for > 668 C-RPDs (mean follow-up time ≤ 5 years) and six studies for 893 C-RPDs (mean follow-up time > 5 years), where the estimates of abutment loss were 5% (95% CI 2% to 8%) and 8% (95% CI 5% to 13%), respectively. The data were not significantly different (P = .1), and were heterogenous between the studies (τ2 ≥ 0.34, I2 ≥ 87.38%). Thirteen studies were compounded for 1,223 DC-RPDs (mean follow-up time ≤ 5 years) and eight studies for 1,033 DC-RPDs (mean follow-up time > 5 years), where the estimates of abutment loss were 6% (95% CI 5% to 8%) and 12% (95% CI 8% to 18%), respectively. The data were heterogenous (τ2 ≥ 0.17, I2 ≥ 75.86%), and were significantly different between the studies (P = .005). Overall, C-RPDs were not significantly different from DC-RPDs in abutment loss (P ≥ .3). A significant predictor for abutment loss was follow-up time with DC-RPDs (P = .005), where the risk of abutment loss per year was 18% (P = .0001). In contrast, follow-up time was not a significant factor for C-RPDs (P = .1). None of the included studies were at high risk of bias.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current systematic review and meta-analysis, abutment loss was not significantly different between C-RPDs and DC-RPDs. A significant predictor was follow-up time for DC-RPDs, whereas this factor was not significant for C-RPDs. Further research is needed to investigate critical factors for abutment loss with RPDs.
Schlagwörter: abutment loss, clasp-retained removable partial denture, conical crown-retained removable partial denture, double crown-retained removable partial denture, telescopic crown-retained removable partial denture
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b912613, PubMed-ID: 33491391Seiten: 426-433, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of vertical soft tissue thickness (STT) on crestal bone loss (CBL) of early loaded implants after 1 and 5 years. Method and materials: Forty-four tapered implants with platform switching and conical connection were placed in the posterior mandible and maxilla to rehabilitate edentulous sites. STT at implant sites was divided into two groups: thin (n = 21, mean STT = 2.0 ± 0.3 mm) and thick (n = 23, mean STT = 3.0 ± 0.8 mm). The implants were loaded after 6 to 8 weeks. Survival and success rates and CBL were measured after 1 and 5 years.
Results: The survival and success rates at 1 and 5 years were 100% and 97.8%, respectively. At the 1-year follow-up, the CBL of the thin and thick gingival groups was 0.96 ± 0.49 and 0.55 ± 0.41 mm, respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P = .004). At 5 years, the CBL of the thin and thick gingiva groups increased to 1.12 ± 0.84 and 0.65 ± 0.69 mm, respectively; the difference was not statistically significant (P = .052).
Conclusion: At 1 year, the CBL was more pronounced at sites with a thin gingiva; at 5 years the difference between the groups was not statisically significantly different. Within the limitations of this study, early loading of implants with platform switched and conical connection was safe.
Schlagwörter: crestal bone loss, dental implants, early loading, platform switching, soft tissue thickness
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b912695, PubMed-ID: 33491390Seiten: 434-443, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of using DentalVibe during injection in comparison with the traditional injection technique, regarding pain and discomfort associated with buccal infiltration anesthesia (BIA) in pediatric patients.
Method and materials: This randomized clinical trial included 6- to 12-year-old healthy children currently receiving nonurgent dental treatment on the maxillary arch that required BIA. In the control group, subjects received traditional BIA. In the test group, they received BIA with the aid of DentalVibe. A sample of 30 subjects per group was included. The mean ± SD age of the subjects was 9.18 ± 1.66 years. All the subjects were videotaped, and two trained and calibrated evaluators assessed the children’s behaviors during the injection using the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability (FLACC) scale independently. Immediately after anesthesia administration, the subjects were administered the validated Arabic version of the Wong-Baker FACES scale ranging from 0 to 10.
Results: Female subjects showed significantly higher mean FLACC and Wong-Baker FACES scale scores (2.20 ± 1.82 and 2.93 ± 3.05) compared with males (1.08 ± 1.37 and 1.12 ± 2.09) (P = .008 and P = .006, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed that regardless of age and treatment group, females had significantly higher mean scores on the FLACC (β = 1.63, P = .002) and the Wong-Baker FACES scales (OR = 4.44, P = .004) than males.
Conclusion: The use of DentalVibe did not significantly affect pain, discomfort, or time during BIA among pediatric patients compared with the traditional technique. Female children were more likely to report higher pain and discomfort scores during BIA administration regardless of age and anesthesia administration technique.
Schlagwörter: children, DentalVibe, local anesthesia, pain, vibration
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b936999, PubMed-ID: 33533236Seiten: 444-454, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The spread of COVID-19 has posed significant challenges for dental professionals worldwide. The aims of the present study were twofold: (i) to study the attitudes, emotional responses, and worries among the dental personnel; and (ii) to look for the ability of dental personnel to experience posttraumatic self-growth as a result of the distress caused by the pandemic. Method and materials: A cross-sectional online survey using an anonymous questionnaire was performed simultaneously in Israel, Canada, and France during the initial lockdown period.
Results: Israeli dental practitioners were less worried about their physical health, mental health, or relationships with family and friends than their Canadian and French counterparts. The Canadian dental practitioners were most committed and most willing to treat their patients, as well as most concerned about not being able to treat patients in the same personal way as before the lockdown. French dental practitioners showed the highest level of fear to treat patients. There were no differences in dental practitioners’ levels of anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic growth among the countries. Dental practitioners’ posttraumatic growth was significantly associated with worries regarding their physical health.
Conclusion: Responses of dental personnel to the COVID-19 pandemic varied worldwide. Despite the differences, evidence exists that some of the dental practitioners’ worries and concerns are associated with psychologic growth as a result of the pandemic. Better understanding and acknowledgment of dental personnel’s worries and concerns can facilitate growth and enable positive functioning under the continuous situation of uncertainty.
Schlagwörter: COVID-19, dental, pandemic, posttraumatic growth, wellbeing
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1043985, PubMed-ID: 33688716Seiten: 454-466, Sprache: Englisch
Both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are classified as autoimmune diseases, where the body’s own immune response causes it to attack the host tissues, as if the latter were antigens. RA is the most common autoimmune disease that affects joints. The clinical diagnosis of RA is based on the history and examination, integrated with laboratory tests including blood tests on inflammatory markers, serology, and imaging. There are no diagnostic criteria, but there are classification criteria. SLE affects most major organ systems in the body. The diagnosis of SLE relies on the constellation of characteristic symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings in the appropriate clinical context and after excluding other reasonable diagnoses. Epidemiologically, both conditions show a definitive female predilection. The focus of this review article is epidemiology, and the major clinical features with an emphasis on the orofacial manifestations. The relevant clinical points for the dental practitioner area summarized.
Schlagwörter: autoimmune disease, orofacial manifestations, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)