DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b2173987, PubMed-ID: 34664924Seiten: 845-846, Sprache: Englisch
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1702285, PubMed-ID: 34235909Seiten: 848-861, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes 2 years after the adjunctive use of an InGaAsP diode and Er,Cr:YSGG laser for nonsurgical treatment of severe periodontitis.
Method and materials: Forty-two patients (45.31 ± 9.78 years old, n = 22 females, n = 23 smokers) with stage III or IV grade B periodontitis were randomly treated either with laser (InGaAsP + Er,Cr:YSGG) adjunctive to subgingival debridement (test group, n = 21) or with subgingival debridement alone (control group, n = 21). Subjects in the test group received a second laser treatment in residual sites 2 months after the initial laser therapy. At baseline, and at 12 and 24 months after therapy, periodontal clinical parameters were evaluated. The primary outcome variable was the number of residual deep sites at 12 months (probing depth [PD] ≥ 6 mm).
Results: One and two years after nonsurgical periodontal treatment, both groups yielded statistically significant clinical improvements. The adjunctive use of InGaAsP and Er,Cr:YSGG laser to mechanical debridement resulted in statistically significantly higher clinical (PD, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, number of sites with PD ≥ 5 mm, PD ≥ 6 mm, PD ≥ 7 mm) improvements (P < .05) compared to subgingival debridement alone both at 12 and 24 months after therapy.
Conclusion: In patients with stage III or IV grade B periodontitis, InGaAsP and Er,Cr:YSGG used adjunctively to subgingival debridement may additionally improve the clinical outcomes compared to mechanical debridement alone over a period of 24 months.
Schlagwörter: YSGG, InGaAsP, periodontal laser therapy, periodontal treatment, periodontitis
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1702197, PubMed-ID: 34235908Seiten: 858-866, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To assess the efficacy of aerosolized midazolam, introduced through buccal versus intranasal mucosa in managing uncooperative children undergoing dental treatment.
Method and materials: A crossover randomized controlled clinical trial included 36 children aged 3 to 5 years, rated I or II according to the Frankl scale and ASA I or II. Each child fulfilled the requirement of having a dental condition that needed treatment in two dental settings. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups; either buccal or intranasal aerosolized midazolam was administered at the first visit. The alternate route was implemented with a 1-week washout period in the second visit. Drug acceptance and time until optimum sedation were measured. Crying, sleeping, head resistance, and child overall behavior were assessed using modified Houpt scale.
Results: In total, 34 patients (95 %) were drowsy on optimum sedation. There was a statistically higher acceptance of buccal midazolam (P < .001). Onset of optimum sedation was more rapid for the intranasal group, with a mean of 15.50 ± 4.226 minutes (P < .001), while in the buccal group the mean was 22.97 ± 4.582 minutes. No statistical differences were recorded between the two groups in all behavior rating scales, except for crying where the intranasal group was statistically higher (P = .010). Regarding the overall behavior, there was no significant difference recorded between the two groups (P = .204).
Conclusion: Aerosolized buccal midazolam was more tolerated by the patients. However, intranasal aerosolized midazolam had a more rapid onset of sedation. Both buccal and intranasal administrations of aerosolized midazolam are safe and effective.
Schlagwörter: aerosolized, buccal route, intranasal route, midazolam, sedation
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1492199, PubMed-ID: 34076379Seiten: 868-878, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Passiflora incarnata L for the control of anxiety during third mandibular molar extraction and compare it to midazolam, the most used benzodiazepine in dentistry.
Method and materials: The investigators implemented a prospective, randomized, double-blind, split-mouth study. The degree of anxiety of the patients was assessed before the surgical procedure. The surgeries took place in two sessions: one on each side of the hemi-mandible and, on each of them, the patient received one of the drugs, crosswise. Anxiety control was measured through physical parameters, at the following periods during the surgery: (1) immediately administration of anxiolytic medication, (2) 30 minutes after anxiolytic medication, (3) after extraoral antisepsis, (4) after local anesthesia, (5) during incision, (6) during osteotomy, (7) between osteotomy and odontosection, (8) during odontosection, (9) during surgical store curettage, (10) during suture, and (11) immediately after postoperative care guidelines. Lastly, the volunteers received a self-assessment form in order to report their experience. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon test.
Results: The final sample was composed of 20 patients, with a mean age of 22.5 years. The results of the physical parameters showed statistically significant differences (P < .05) for certain times and physical parameters, especially heart rate (P = .036), which showed the highest control for Passiflora at time point (3). The undesirable effects reported by patients such as drowsiness, muscle relaxation, and dizziness were greater with benzodiazepine.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Passiflora may be considered as an alternative to midazolam in controlling anxiety in dentistry. Future studies will focus on other benzodiazepines and herbal medicines.
Schlagwörter: anxiety, midazolam, oral surgery, phytotherapy, third molar
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b2053577, PubMed-ID: 34595911Seiten: 880-886, Sprache: Englisch
Bone regeneration and remodeling are crucial to healing after surgical interventions. Local and systemic factors impact healing. Some well-known medications actively alter bone remodeling. The objective of this report was to increase awareness of less commonly recognized medications that may delay the integration of bone grafts. This case report presents the delayed integration of a bone graft after tooth removal, socket preservation, and ridge augmentation procedures in a patient taking various medications that may have affected bone remodeling. The literature review enables the discussion of evidence regarding delayed bone remodeling associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, metformin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the clinical implications for patients taking these medications.
Schlagwörter: bone grafting, bone remodeling, delayed osseointegration, dental implant, medication
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1901299, PubMed-ID: 34410072Seiten: 888-895, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a condition in the absence of clear pathology. Pathogenesis is still enigmatic, although comorbidity with mood/affective disorders is observed. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between personality traits, mood and sleep disorders, and PIFP; and to compare them with posttraumatic chronic orofacial pain.
Method and materials: A cross-sectional, single-center study was designed to evaluate patients diagnosed with PIFP according to ICOP (International Classification of Orofacial Pain) diagnostic criteria through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Five Factor Model, and visual analog scale indexes. Data were analyzed and compared with patients suffering from organic pathology – unilateral chronic mandibular fracture pain.
Results: A total of 67 respondents enrolled as the experimental group and 28 participants as a control group. Pain scores were higher in the experimental group (P < .001) and had positive correlation with depression (r = .44, P < .001) and sleep index scores (r = .415, P < .001). Personality trait scores did not differ between the groups. However, neuroticism correlated with depression (r = .466, P < .01) and anxiety (r = .634, P < .01) scores in the experimental group. Depression (P = .002) and anxiety scores (P = .007) were higher in the experimental group, as well as sleep indexes (P = .038). Depression (r = .609, P < .001) and anxiety (r = .655, P < .001) scores had positive correlation with sleep index scores. Sleep scores in the experimental group positively correlated with neuroticism score (r = .442, P < .001). PIFP increases the chance of experiencing depression (OR 10.688; 95% CI 1.355–84.309, P = .006) as well as poor quality of sleep (OR 3.389; 95% CI 1.023–11.228, P = .006).
Conclusions: The results suggest that personality traits (neuroticism), anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders are associated with PIFP.
Schlagwörter: anxiety, depression, persistent idiopathic facial pain, personality traits, sleep disorder
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b2053853, PubMed-ID: 34595912Seiten: 896-902, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To describe and report on the use of virtual clinical competency examinations (VCCEs) for D3 dental students in a radiology clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic and relate the technology to other clinical and educational applications.
Method and materials: Paper-based clinical competency examinations (CCEs) were converted to three different VCCEs to closely replicate the CCEs. Existing grading rubrics were used to assess students’ abilities to evaluate technical issues and interpret intraoral full-mouth series and panoramic radiographs. The grading rubrics were modified from their clinical versions to eliminate non-reproducible skills, such as patient management and application of selection criteria. Radiographs were selected from clinic records and anonymized. VCCEs were conducted via WebEx conferences that were scheduled via an appointment app. These experiences can be extended to virtual patient contacts, teleradiology, and telemedicine, as well as continuing dental education experiences.
Results: Approximately 200 VCCEs were administered by four oral and maxillofacial radiology faculty over a 10-week period. Both students and faculty managed the technology well, with few missed appointments. All students were successful in challenging the examinations and appeared to be satisfied with the experience.
Conclusions: Although direct comparisons between the CCEs and the new VCCEs are difficult, as there was no time to pilot the VCCEs, students were successful in challenging the examinations and informally reported satisfaction with the experience. Although components of CCEs that could not be replicated on the VCEs could not be assessed, it is felt that the students had adequate experience in selection of radiographs and patient management prior to the COVID-19 lockdown. Additional benefits of the VCCEs included contact with students to check on their well-being. The experience indicates that VCCEs can be used in the future in hybrid models of oral & maxillofacial radiology education, clinical care, patient screening, and telemedicine. Moreover, the success of this demonstration points to potential for personalized distance learning in continuing dental education.
Schlagwörter: assessment, clinical exam, competency examinations, computer-assisted instruction, oral radiology, radiographic interpretation, radiographic technical assessment, teledentistry, telemedicine, undergraduate dental education
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1901329, PubMed-ID: 34410071Seiten: 904-910, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To evaluate, in vivo, trueness and precision of two intraoral scanners, CEREC Omnicam (OMNI) and CEREC Primescan (PRIM), compared to a conventional impression serving as a master model.
Method and materials: Impressions were performed for seven participants. For each participant, conventional polyvinylsiloxane impression and digital impressions using two intraoral scanners, OMNI (software 4.6; CEREC ORTHO Protocol) and PRIM (10 digital impressions per participant, per scanner), were made. Conventional impression was digitized with a laboratory scanner (INEOS X5), and used as reference model. .STL files were superimposed with software (Geomagic Control X) using the tools Initial Alignment and Best Fit Alignment, and trueness and precision were evaluated. Statistical evaluation was performed with Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests (P < .05).
Results: Total mean trueness for the OMNI system was 56.45 ± 7.80 µm, and 47.29 ± 5.47 µm for the PRIM system. Regarding precision, values from the OMNI system were 42.47 ± 6.91 µm and from the PRIM system 21.86 ± 4.40 µm. PRIM presented better results for both trueness (P = .000) and precision (P = .000) when compared to OMNI.
Conclusions: PRIM provided a better combination of trueness and precision than its predecessor OMNI. However, both PRIM and OMNI performed acceptably when performing indirect restorations, according to the current acceptable thresholds, considering both trueness and precision. Clinical implications: Full-arch impressions with Primescan presented more precision and trueness than Omnicam; however, compared to previous reported values of conventional impressions, they still presented lower accuracy.
Schlagwörter: digital impression, intraoral scanners, precision, trueness
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1981423, PubMed-ID: 34664925Seiten: 912-919, Sprache: Englisch
The following article deals with various considerations concerning the frequently observed occurrence of dental erosion in athletes. It summarizes the basics of erosive tooth wear development as well as special etiologic factors for groups of athletes with increased prevalence of dental erosion and concludes with preventive advice. (Originally published (in German) in Quintessenz Zahnmed 2021;72:1008–1017)
Schlagwörter: athletes, dental erosion, erosive tooth wear, nutrition, risk factors
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b2077573, PubMed-ID: 34595913Seiten: 920-932, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: To review the elements of static analysis in the functional assessment of the stomatognathic system, as promoted for more than a century by gnathologists, and summarize the available scientific evidence, including anthropologic observations.
Method and materials: A thorough search was conducted using PubMed, the Cochrane Library database, and Google Scholar. From peer-reviewed articles and other scientific literature, up-to-date information addressing three topics was identified: (a) the anthropologic perspective with particular consideration for the role of progressive dental wear over time, (b) descriptions of gnathologic principles and evidence on their scientific validity, and (c) the methodologic inaccuracies introduced by seeking to correlate variables directly rather than allowing for causal inference.
Results: For decades gnathology attempted to describe a structure-function correlation within the stomatognathic system by means of a model whose principles were static and mechanistic references. No scientific validation was ever achieved, placing clinical and research consensus out of reach.
Conclusions: A historical perspective helps to place the fundamentals of gnathology into context: They were conceived to solve technical difficulties but were then assumed to be physiologic stereotypes. This misconception led to a decades-long promotion of mechanistic theories to describe oral function, but the evidence available today supports a more flexible and adaptable approach. Gnathologic arguments have been relegated to become exclusively of technical relevance in oral rehabilitation.
Schlagwörter: dental occlusion, gnathology, oral function, real-world data, temporomandibular disorder, tooth wear